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Pipe FittingsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Threaded square head plug manufacturer
The product flows between the components of the plant in the pipe system. A dairy also has conduit systems for other media such as water, steam, cleaning solutions, coolant and compressed air.
A waste-water system to the drain is also necessary. All these systems are basically built up in the same way. The difference is in the materials used, the design of the components and the sizes of the pipes.
All components in contact with the product are made of stainless steel. Various materials are used in the other systems, e. Plastic is used for water and air lines, and ceramic for drainage and sewage pipes. The following section deals only with the product line and its components. The pipe systems for service media are described in the section dealing with utility installations.
Permanent joints are welded Figure 6. Where disconnection is required, the pipe connection is in the form of a threaded union with a male end and a retained nut with a joint ring in between, or a clamped union with a joint ring Figure 6. The union permits disconnection without disturbing other pipe-work. This type of joint is therefore used to connect process equipment, instruments, etc. Different countries have different union standards.
In the latter case, the fitting can be ordered with nut or male ends or with clamp fittings. All unions must be tightened firmly to prevent liquid from leaking out or air from being sucked into the system and causing problems in downstream parts of the process.
Sight glasses are fitted in the line where a visual check of the product is required. Bends with instrument connections are used for fitting instruments like thermometers and gauges. The sensor should be directed against the flow to make readings as accurate as possible. The connection boss can also be used for a sampling cock. Instrument connections can also be provided with welding special bosses directly onto the pipe during installation.
Sampling devices need to be installed at strategic points in the plant to collect product samples for analysis. For quality control, such as determining the fat content of milk and the pH value of cultured products, the samples can be collected from a sampling cock Figure 6. For hygienic quality tests, the sampling method must preclude any risk of contamination from outside the pipe. A sampling plug can therefore be used. This plug, shown in Figure 6.
The plug is first removed and all parts that could contaminate the sample are sterilized typically a wad moistened in a chlorine solution just before sampling , after which the needle of a hypodermic syringe is inserted through the bung into the product, and a sample is withdrawn.
The aseptic sampling valve Figure 6. The rubber membrane is placed on the stem of the valve head and works as a stretchable plug. The aseptic sampling valve is designed for sterilization before and after each sampling. The manual valve is opened by rotating a handle or by activating a lever. The stem and the membrane are then retracted, allowing liquid to pass.
Using the reverse procedure the built-in spring closes the valve and keeps the channel between the hose pieces open for sterilization. Samples of aseptic products — heat treated at such a high temperature that they are sterile — are always collected through an aseptic sampling valve to avoid reinfection. There are many junctions in a piping system where product normally flows from one line to the other, but which must sometimes be closed off so that two different media can flow through the two lines without being mixed.
When the lines are isolated from each other, any leakage must go to drain without any possibility of one medium being mixed with the other. This is a common problem faced when engineering dairy plants. Dairy products and cleaning solutions flow in separate lines, and have to be kept separate. Figure 6. Zoom Fig. There are many places in a piping system where it must be possible to stop the flow or divert it to another line.
These functions are performed by valves. Seat valves, manually or pneumatically controlled, or butterfly valves, are used for this purpose. The valve body has a seat for the closing plug at the end of the stem. The plug is lifted from and lowered onto the seat by the stem, which is moved by a crank or a pneumatic actuator Figure 6. The seat valve is also available in a change-over version. This valve has three to five ports. When the plug is lowered, the liquid flows from inlet 2 to outlet 1, and when the plug is lifted to the upper seat, the flow is directed through outlet 3, according to the drawings to the right in Figure 6.
This type of valve can have up to five ports. The number is determined by the process requirements. There is also another type of seat valve, where the valve plug closes in the opposite way compared to a standard valve. This valve type can be used to eliminate pressure shocks in the product lines. This type of valve can be either in change-over or shut-off version.
Various remote-controlled actuator alternatives are available. For example, the valve can be opened by compressed air and closed with a spring, or vice versa. It can also be both opened and closed by compressed air Figure 6. Actuators for an intermediate plug position and for two-stage opening and closing are also available.
The valve control unit Figure 6. The top unit includes indication unit, activation stem, sensor system and solenoid valves to control and supervise all kinds of pneumatic processing valves. It receives signals from a PLC to control the valve and it sends feedback signals to the PLC to indicate when the valve is in a certain position. The top unit can easily be set by remote control and indicate seat lift of mixproof valves and it includes a maintenance programme to indicate when plug seals of a single seat is worn out.
The modern top units can be used for digital as well as bus communication systems. A solenoid valve is fitted in the top unit. An electric signal triggers the solenoid valve and allows compressed air to enter the actuator. The valve then opens or closes as required.
On the way, the compressed air passes through a filter to free it from oil and other foreign matter that might affect proper operation of the valve. The air supply is cut off when the solenoid is de-energized and the air in the product valve is then evacuated through an exhaust port in the solenoid valve.
Manual shut-off seat valve and pneumatically operated change-over seat valve. The operating mechanism is interchangeable between shut-off and change-over seat valves. The butterfly valve Figure 6. Two valves must be used to obtain a change-over function. Butterfly valves are often used for sensitive products, such as yoghurt and other cultured milk products, as the restriction through the valve is very small, resulting in very low pressure drop and no turbulence.
It is also good for high viscosities and, being a straight-through valve, it can be fitted in straight pipes. The valve usually consists of two identical halves with a seal ring clamped between them. A streamlined disc is fitted in the centre of the valve. It is usually supported by bushes to prevent the stem from seizing against the valve bodies. With the disc in the open position, the valve offers very low flow resistance. In the closed position, the disc seals against the seal ring. The butterfly valve is fitted with a handle, usually for two positions — open and closed.
This type of valve is not really suitable as a control valve, but can be used for coarse control with a special handle for infinite positions. The disc is easy to turn until it touches the seal ring. Then it needs more power to compress the rubber. A normal, spring powered actuator is strongest in the beginning, when less power is required, and weaker at the end, when more power is required.
It is therefore an advantage to use actuators which are designed so that they provide the correct power at the right time. Another type of the butterfly valve is the flange valve, shown in Figure 6. It is the same type of butterfly valve as described above, but it is fitted between two flanges welded to the line. Its function is the same as an ordinary butterfly valve. During operation, it is clamped between the flanges with screws.
For servicing, the screws are loosened. The valve part can then be pulled out for easy servicing. Mixproof valves Figure 6. A double-seated valve has two independent plug seals separating two liquids, forming a leakage chamber between them under atmospheric pressure during every working condition.
In case of rare accidental leaking of product, this will flow into the leakage chamber and be discharged through the leakage detection pipe. When the valve is open, the leakage chamber is closed. The product can then flow from one line to the other. During cleaning one upper or lower of the plugs lift so that seat and plug are cleaned. The cleaning liquid is discharged through the leakage chamber. External cleaning of upper and lower plugs and leakage chamber, as well as aseptic-like operation, are also possible.
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Square Tube Fasteners. Compatible with these models: Power-Pole 6' and earlier, Sportsman Series 6' and Stainless steel flanges are highly resistant to rust, are much stronger and can out perform carbon steel flanges and provide much more corrosion resistance than your aluminum or steel flanges. Get quote on square aluminum tubing extrusions. Create adjustable structures with telescoping square tubing!
Understanding Pipe Fittings
The product flows between the components of the plant in the pipe system. A dairy also has conduit systems for other media such as water, steam, cleaning solutions, coolant and compressed air. A waste-water system to the drain is also necessary. All these systems are basically built up in the same way. The difference is in the materials used, the design of the components and the sizes of the pipes. All components in contact with the product are made of stainless steel.
When followed by a number ex: B , indicates hardness measured on the Rockwell B Scale. When followed by a number ex: C , indicates hardness measured on the Rockwell C Scale. Standard American Equivalent - Uses inches as unit of measure, as opposed to metric. Also: SAE Pattern washers. These washers have a smaller inside diameter than USS pattern washers. Also: When used with washers, it means "small OD. Also: When used with screws or nuts, it means "fine thread.
Square Tube Fasteners
Subsea oil and gas production. Petrochemical and refining. Research and development. Nuclear fuels.
Component standards and specifications have various marking requirements. MSS SP is the most commonly used marking standard. It contains a variety of specific marking requirements that are too lengthy to list in this appendix; please refer to it when necessary to confirm the markings on a component. Where size and shape do not permit all of the above markings, they may be omitted in the reverse order given above. Die Stamping Process in which an engraved die is used to cut and stamp leave an impression. Paint Stencilling Produces an image or pattern by applying pigment to a surface over an intermediate object with gaps in it which create the pattern or image by only allowing the pigment to reach some parts of the surface. Steel Pipes. Grade and process of manufacture e.
Titanium Fasteners & Fittings
A pipe fitting is used for changing direction, branching or joining together a piping system. There are many different types of fittings and they are produced in the same sizes, schedules wall and materials as the pipe. The common types of fitting configurations fit into three general groups; Butt-weld, threaded Screwed and socket-weld. A degree return bend is not commonly stocked, and generally needs to be produced per request. The primary purpose of a Tee fitting is to make a branch from a pipe line or run. The branch may need to be the same size as the run or it may need to be one or more sizes smaller than the run. The dimensions for Tees you must look them up on a fitting chart. For Straight Tees the centre-to-end dimension of both ends and for the branch outlet is the same. For a Reducing Tee the centre-to-end of the branch outlet is different from that of the run. A Reducer is a fitting used to change the line size one or more sizes smaller or larger.
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Pipes, valves and fittings
We offer copper, brass, phosphor bronze, monel, lead, aluminum, En Series, M. These are developed using high-grade materials. To meet the diverse requirements of the clients, we offer all our products in different sizes, grades and specifications. Owing to features like resistance to corrosion, durability and dimensional accuracy, our products find their wide use in various industries such as chemicals, fertilizers and construction.
We stock wide range of slip-on flanges, weld neck flanges, blind flanges, socket weld flanges, orifice flanges, ring type joint flanges, threaded elbows, threaded tees, threaded cross, threaded couplings, threaded unions, threaded plugs, threaded bushings, nuts, bolts, studs, washers, screw for industrial use. Micron Steel is counted as one of the privileged manufacturers, stockist, exporters and suppliers of an admirable range of different products like stainless steel, carbon steel, alloy steel and more. Inspection and quality control are the most important tools in today's corporate world.
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Он заместитель директора Агентства национальной безопасности, а сегодня все, что он делает, важно, как. Его дыхание стало ровным.