Agricultural residues are rich in bioactive compounds. These residues can be used as an alternate source for the production of different products like biogas, biofuel, mushroom, and tempeh as the raw material in various researches and industries. The use of agro-industrial wastes as raw materials can help to reduce the production cost and also reduce the pollution load from the environment. Agro-industrial wastes are used for manufacturing of biofuels, enzymes, vitamins, antioxidants, animal feed, antibiotics, and other chemicals through solid state fermentation SSF. A variety of microorganisms are used for the production of these valuable products through SSF processes. Therefore, SSF and their effect on the formation of value-added products are reviewed and discussed.
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- Valorization of Cereal Based Biorefinery Byproducts: Reality and Expectations
- Grain mills
- Biomass waste utilisation in low-carbon products: harnessing a major potential resource
- Navigating the fast-changing landscape of bioplastics and biomaterials
- Basic types of feeds
- Navigating the Fast-Changing Landscape of Bioplastics and Biomaterials
- Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review
- Industrial Hemp Production
- Overview of Corn-Based Fuel Ethanol Coproducts: Production and Use
Valorization of Cereal Based Biorefinery Byproducts: Reality and ExpectationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Twin Peaks ACTUALLY EXPLAINED (No, Really)
At one time there were over water-powered mills for processing hemp fiber in Lancaster County alone Ten things you never knew about PA hemp history. There were also many hemp seed oil mills that pressed the excess hemp seed into oil, which was used in paints, ink, varnishes, and lamp oil.
Hemp was used in the production of rope, grain bags, Conestoga wagon covers, and clothing. In the mids the introduction of cotton as a fiber crop and tobacco led to a decline in hemp production. Hemp production continued into the twentieth century on a limited basis. The story of industrial hemp became linked with its high-THC cousin in the s with the introduction of legislation both at the state and federal levels banning their cultivation.
Concern over using the plants for drug purposes led to the Marihuana Tax Act of , which made both hemp and marijuana controlled substances and effectively eliminated production of industrial hemp with a few exceptions when fiber was needed during WWII. The changing legal status of hemp since has enabled states to begin to allow hemp cultivation. In hemp cultivation was allowed in Pennsylvania on a research basis under the supervision of the Pennsylvania Department of Agriculture.
This has created some interest in the commercial production of hemp for seed and fiber purposes in the state. Industrial hemp can be grown for seed, fiber, or cannabidiols CBDs extracted from the plant tissue. This publication focuses on growing industrial hemp for either seed or fiber on an agronomic crop farm with a typical complement of tillage, planting, and harvest equipment.
In most cases industrial hemp is grown specifically for one use i. Doing this, however, requires investment in more specialized management and harvesting machinery. Growing industrial hemp for CBD extraction is a much more involved process and the legal status of CBDs is currently unclear. This cleared a legal path for industrial hemp to be grown in three limited circumstances: by researchers at an institute of higher education, by state Departments of Agriculture, or by farmers participating in a research program permitted and overseen by a state Department of Agriculture.
In the DEA, U. Department of Agriculture, and the Food and Drug Administration FDA issued a joint statement detailing the guidelines for growth of industrial hemp as part of state-sanctioned research programs. Those guidelines state that hemp can only be sold in states with pilot programs, plants and seeds can only cross state lines as part of permitted state research programs, and seeds can only be imported by individuals registered with the DEA. Currently, farmers and institutions of higher education are participating in this program, which requires an application and permits and growing industrial hemp in accordance with research goals.
Industrial hemp and marijuana are different cultivars bred from the same species, Cannabis sativa. While biologically related, the plant has been bred for different purposes, and the traits exhibited in cultivars grown for industrial hemp and marijuana are distinct.
Industrial hemp is grown for its fiber and seeds, while marijuana cultivars are grown for high levels of THC. Industrial hemp is a plant with many uses, including food, fiber, fuel, industrial, and personal care products. A partial list of potential uses of industrial hemp can be found below. For much of the last century, U.
Industrial hemp is produced commercially in over 30 countries worldwide, with France being the largest producer of industrial hemp in the world. Industrial hemp is a very versatile product with many potential uses for the plant fiber and seeds. Industrial hemp producers should carefully identify which industrial hemp product s and sales channels are available before starting production, secure any necessary permits prior to production, and ensure that production is done in accordance with state and federal laws.
The policy situation is fluid and expected to change at the state and federal levels over the coming years. The difficulty in finding current market information on sale prices and demand makes any projections of the long-term profitability of industrial hemp a real challenge for potential growers.
There is domestic and global competition in the industrial hemp marketplace. Domestically, several states have already researched the economic impact of industrial hemp and have examined the resources required to develop supply chains for industrial hemp, creating a foothold in the marketplace ahead of Pennsylvania. Other states with industrial hemp programs include Kentucky, Oregon, and Colorado. Canada and China have long-established networks of producers, supply chains, and manufacturing facilities in place to deliver products from field to market.
Due to the longstanding federal policies that made the cultivation of industrial hemp illegal, the supply chains and processing and manufacturing facilities necessary to create market-ready products need to be established in the United States.
Industrial hemp producers in Pennsylvania will need to carefully consider the cost of transporting fiber or grain when evaluating the potential profitability of industrial hemp. The creation of supply chains and processing facilities is closely tied to policy and the current low level of domestic production.
As with any business, a potential industrial hemp producer should carefully research the markets, costs, laws, and necessary supply chain partners before beginning production. Hemp is best adapted to well-drained soil with a pH between 6. Hemp does not grow well on wet soils or those with a heavy clay content. Hemp is sensitive to soil crusting and soil compaction, which can occur on these soils. Ideally, hemp should be planted in May to early June in most areas of Pennsylvania.
Some Canadian varieties are short season and could be planted through mid-to-late June and still mature before frost. Hemp is a short-day plant and will only begin to mature when day length is less than 12 hours of sunlight. Hemp grown for seed is generally grown with medium to shorter varieties.
Under current law, varieties must be sourced from other countries since shipment of seed between states is not permitted. Varieties that have low THC levels must be selected. In Pennsylvania and many other states, the level of THC in industrial hemp must be under 0.
Most industrial hemp seed sources have tested their varieties to meet this requirement. Varieties come in various heights, including those that are medium height 6—7 feet tall , semi-dwarf 4—5 feet tall , and dwarf 3—4 feet tall. In the United States, medium to taller varieties are preferred because there are no herbicides labeled for hemp. Hemp for seed can be planted in rows, like corn, or with a grain drill, like a small grain.
Because there are no herbicides currently labeled for use on hemp, hemp grown in rows will require some mechanical weed control. Hemp can also be grown in a tilled seedbed similar to that prepared for forage crop establishment: firm, level, and relatively fine.
It can also be established with no-till methods using burndown herbicides to control existing weeds. Planting rates for industrial hemp depends on the variety, but in general rates from 25 to 35 pounds per acre are recommended. A dense, drilled stand should provide some control of weeds. Fertilizer requirements are best determined by a soil test.
In a soil with optimum levels of phosphorus P and potassium K , recommendations for a crop with a 1,pound yield potential would be pounds of nitrogen N , 30 pounds of phosphate P 2 O 5 , and 20 pounds of potash K 2 O. Hemp can be affected by disease and insect pests in the field.
While these have not been common in initial trials, they could increase with more cultivation. Several diseases have been noted, including gray mold Botrytis cinerea , white mold Sclerotinia sclerotiorum , bacterial leaf spots, viruses, and Pythium root rot and blight during establishment.
It would be best to avoid growing hemp in fields with a previous white mold problem in soybeans or canola or in wet fields where seed rots could be a problem. Many of the insects that cause issues with other crops, such as cutworm, grubs, flea beetles, grasshoppers, and aphids, have been reported in hemp.
In Pennsylvania research trials, only Japanese beetles have been noted in hemp, and they are attracted only to the male plants.
Slugs have also been reported to damage hemp. Bird damage can also be an issue with hemp, as the seed is an attractive feed source. Mourning doves seem especially fond of hemp seed. Damage from deer and woodchucks does not appear to be as severe as it does in other crops like soybean.
For seed production, hemp is harvested when seeds begin to shatter. The plants will still be green. At this time about 70 percent of the seeds will be ripe and the seed moisture is often about 22—30 percent. If harvesting is delayed, then grain losses can increase from shattering, bird damage, and grain quality.
There is also a greater problem with the fiber in the stalks wrapping in the combine. Avoiding taller varieties can help reduce the amount of material going through the combine. For fiber production, planting is best done in drilled stands at seeding rates of 35—50 pounds per acre, which should result in stands of around 15 plants per square foot.
The taller fiber hemp varieties provide more competition with weeds than the shorter grain types. Fertility recommendations are slightly different for hemp grown for fiber compared to seed. There is no grain development when producing hemp fiber and the nutrients in the leaves are recycled to the soil.
Hemp for fiber is generally harvested when plants are between early bloom and seed set depending on the fiber quality. After the hemp is cut it must undergo a process called retting.
This helps to break the bonds between the two different types of fibers in the hemp plant, the bast the outer long fibers and the hurds inner short fibers. Field retting is the most common process and involves leaving the crop in the field for up to five weeks to allow a field decomposition process to occur. Windrows are raked two or three times before harvest to dry and remove leaf materials. Then the crop is dried and baled in round or square bales and hauled to a storage facility.
From there the hemp is processed and separated into the bast and hurds for further processing into finished products. Individual processors may have different harvest procedures. In the normal course of operations, farmers handle pesticides and other chemicals, may have manure to collect and spread, and use equipment to prepare fields and harvest crops. Any of these routine on-farm activities can be a potential source of surface water or groundwater pollution.
Because of this possibility, you must understand the regulations you must follow concerning the proper handling and application of chemicals and the disposal and transport of waste. Depending on the watershed where your farm is located, there may be additional environmental regulations regarding erosion control, pesticide leaching, and nutrient runoff.
Contact your soil and water conservation district, extension office, zoning board, state departments of agriculture and environmental protection, and local governing authorities to determine what regulations may pertain to your operation.
You should carefully consider how to manage risk on your farm.
Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries.
In combination with the projected world population of nine billion by , further malnourishment of both humans and animals may occur; therefore, understanding of the current status of food waste and reuse is important. Large amounts of food waste meat, vegetables, fruits, and breads are produced daily. Results of the previous research suggest that food waste can be used successfully in diets of monogastric animals. The poultry industry is growing globally and uses large amounts of corn and soy for poultry diets; therefore, research should be conducted to investigate the partial use of alternative feed ingredients to meet the growing demand for poultry production. We proposed that food waste, occurring in all sectors of the food supply chain, could become a partial substitute for corn and soy in broiler diets.
Biomass waste utilisation in low-carbon products: harnessing a major potential resource
Edible seaweed pods that hold drinking water. Inedible banana leaves around perishable food. Diapers made from eucalyptus wood. The scope of the sources of these products is wide-ranging. In some cases — mostly for applications centered on packaging, consumer goods and some building materials — companies are seeking ways that fossil fuel-based plastics can be swapped out entirely for materials found in nature. These are materials created when the carbon in the carbon-containing compounds is sourced from plants rather than oil or gas, be it from corn to sugar to rice to vegetable oils instead.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Starch disposable tableware
Starch is our strength. We manufacture top quality starch products using modern and environmentally-sensitive methods. The raw materials: corn, potatoes and wheat. The result: Top quality starch products for numerous applications in many different industries. The starch segment has long been our second business field and one in which we are among the leading suppliers in Europe. We produce at five sites in Austria and Eastern Europe. At the AGRANA starch mill in Aschach, corn is processed to make top-quality products for our partners in various downstream processing industries. The partnerships with our upstream suppliers are equally important.
Navigating the fast-changing landscape of bioplastics and biomaterials
Edible seaweed pods that hold drinking water. Inedible banana leaves around perishable food. Diapers made from eucalyptus wood.
Animal feeds are classified as follows: 1 concentrates, high in energy value, including fat, cereal grains and their by-products barley, corn, oats, rye, wheat , high-protein oil meals or cakes soybean, canola, cottonseed , peanut [groundnut] , and by-products from processing of sugar beets, sugarcane , animals, and fish, and 2 roughages, including pasture grasses, hays, silage , root crops, straw, and stover cornstalks. In the agricultural practices of North America and northern Europe, barley , corn, oats , rye , and sorghums are grown almost entirely as animal feed, although small quantities are processed for human consumption as well. These grains are fed whole or ground, either singly or mixed with high-protein oil meals or other by-products, minerals, and vitamins to form a complete feed for pigs and poultry or an adequate dietary supplement for ruminants and horses. The production of grains is seasonal because of temperature or moisture conditions or a combination of both. The grain is dried to 14 percent or less moisture to prevent sprouting or molding; the grain is then stored in containers or buildings where insects and rodents cannot destroy it. Vegetable seeds produced primarily as a source of oil for human food and industrial uses include soybeans , peanuts groundnuts , flaxseed linseed , canola, cottonseed , coconuts , oil palm , and sunflower seeds. After these seeds are processed to remove the oil, the residues, which may contain from 5 percent to less than 1 percent of fat and 20 to 50 percent of protein, are marketed as animal feeds. Cottonseed and peanuts have woody hulls or shells, which are generally removed before processing—if the hulls or shells are left intact, the resulting by-product is higher in fibre and appreciably lower in protein and energy value. The protein quality of these meals for monogastrics varies greatly depending on the levels and availability of the amino acids present.
Basic types of feeds
The Break Mill SM 4 is applied for the preparation of samples for moisture, protein Quadrumat Junior: New roller mill for user-friendly lab flour preparation What is it used for? The Brabender Quadrumat Junior is a universal laboratory roller mill with integrated separation and aspiration It is applicable in preparation of production of equivalent test flours, identification of the milling properties of manifold Perten Instruments can offer two types of Laboratory Mills , the hammer type mill and the disc type mill. Disc mills are used when grinding samples for moisture determination, Via a feed roller, the product
Navigating the Fast-Changing Landscape of Bioplastics and Biomaterials
Baby corn also known as young corn , cornlets or baby sweetcorn is a cereal grain taken from corn maize harvested early while the stalks are still small and immature. It typically is eaten whole — cob included — in contrast to mature corn, whose cob is too tough for human consumption. It is eaten both raw and cooked. Baby corn is common in stir fry dishes. There are two methods for producing baby corn either as a primary crop or as a secondary crop in a planting of sweet corn or field corn. In the first method, a seed variety is chosen and planted to produce only baby corn. In the second production method, the variety is selected to produce sweet or field corn. The second ear from the top of the plant is harvested for baby corn, while the top ear is allowed to mature. Baby corn ears are hand-picked as soon as the corn silks emerge from the ear tips, or a few days after. Corn generally matures very quickly, so the harvest of baby corn must be timed carefully to avoid ending up with more mature corn ears.
Many farmers already produce biomass energy by growing corn to make ethanol. But biomass energy comes in many forms.
Agro-industrial wastes and their utilization using solid state fermentation: a review
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Industrial Hemp Production
Protein concentrate obtained by pressing the aerial part of alfalfa Medicago sativa L. In one commercial process, fresh alfalfa is first pressed to obtain a green juice. This juice is then heated and steamed to produce a protein coagulate. Dehydrated aerial part of alfalfa Medicago sativa L.
Overview of Corn-Based Fuel Ethanol Coproducts: Production and Use
As a result, every solution must be tailored to meet the needs of an individual farmer in a specific field. This requires innovation and new ideas. Not only to grow enough but to grow better for our planet and its people.