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Manufacturing manufactory products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica

Manufacturing manufactory products from porcelain, faience, semi-porcelain and majolica

As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries. Ceramic objects are often identified by their marks. Marks like the Chelsea anchor or the crossed-swords of Meissen are well known and were often pirated , while the significance of others is uncertain.

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Content:

International Ceramics Directory

Authors have divided the field into sections, and have in many cases presented learned and exhaustive special treatises. Notwithstanding the solid learning and critical acumen reflected in their pages, their form and voluminous character, however, detracted from their value as books for familiar and speedy reference, and left the acquirement of a general knowledge of the ceramic art a matter for wide research and prolonged study on the part of every reader and collector.

The attempt has here been made to condense the leading points of the subject, to arrange them after a simple and easily intelligible method, and thus to present in one volume a comprehensive history. No hesitation has been shown in drawing upon foreign authors. Many of the later developments of the art have also been touched upon, and the results of the more recent efforts of artists and manufacturers have been illustrated and described.

In treating of America, the author has endeavored to convey some idea of its wealth in materials and of the present condition and tendencies of the industry, and to do justice to those who have laid the foundation of its claim to recognition in the world of art. The author has incurred obligations in many quarters for information and assistance. Samuel P. Avery, the Hon. Yoshida Kiyonari, Japanese Minister at Washington, General Di Cesnola, and the many private collectors whose cabinets are represented in the following pages, gave valuable aid both in obtaining illustrations and in other respects.

Charles Edward Haviland, Mr. Theodore Haviland, and M. Bracquemond contributed many valuable hints upon technology and the manufacture and composition of different wares. The dealers of New York, Boston, Washington, Albany, and other cities took an active interest both in directing the author to collections and in furnishing specimens for illustration.

Among American manufacturers, Mr. Thomas C. Smith, of Greenpoint; Mr. James Carr, of New York; Mr. Hugh C. Robertson, of Chelsea, Massachusetts; and Mr. Hart Brewer, of Trenton, are especially deserving of thanks for helping the author to a true insight into the past history, present condition, and prospects of the art in the United States. In regard to the engravings, while it was, of course, found necessary in many cases to cull from the rich accumulations of ceramic treasures in Europe, in order to secure the proper illustration of the work, the preference has invariably been given to the collections of America.

Such a course recommended itself for obvious reasons. It was thought that it would, in the first place, gratify those desirous of knowing where, in this country, the best representatives of the art of certain countries are to be found; and that, in the second place, it would direct artists where to study the best styles of decoration. The arts of all countries are found arrayed side by side in a profusion of which it would have been hard, a few years ago, to find a trace.

The requirements of the student of decorative art have been fully considered, and due weight has been given to the fact that these requirements can be met better by the pencil than the pen. In procuring specimens, the author has acknowledgments to express both to private collectors and to the curators of public institutions. Hutchins, of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in this city, both of whom admitted the author to a close inspection of the collections under their charge, and personally superintended the taking of sketches and photographs.

Similar favors were received from the trustees and Dr. Edward Bierstadt of New York, and Mr. Smillie of Washington, also granted facilities and volunteered courtesies which proved invaluable. Casual reference is made in the following pages to the marks of factories and artists, but after due deliberation it was decided not to make them the subject of special treatment or illustration.

Several good manuals are already in the hands of the public, and a book of marks should never take any other form. It is comparatively useless unless easily portable and handy. Then, again, marks are, and always have been, imitated to such an extent that they are not the most trustworthy guides to the parentage of specimens.

Collectors who buy pieces for the sake of the mark they bear may be deceived; those who buy for the sake of beauty may occasionally be mistaken; but a cultivated taste can never be deluded into finding beauty in the unbeautiful. If the present work should be found defective in certain points, it must be remembered that it could hardly be otherwise, considering its scope and limits.

The author will be satisfied if, besides answering its primary purpose, it should increase the interest already awakened in the subject of which it treats, and lead students to appreciate and examine the collections at their command in this country.

Advantages of the Study. Confusion in Use of Terms. Tabulated View. Hard and Soft Pottery and Porcelain. Divisions of Chapter.

The East the Cradle of Art. Possible Priority to Egyptian Pottery. Art Derived from Egypt. Mystery Surrounding People. Art Different from that of Europe or America. Porcelain : When Invented. Geographical Position.

Persia, and its Influence. Routes by which Art Travelled. General Character of Greek Ceramics. Spain : Ancient Pottery. Italian Art. Prospect on approaching France. Early Pottery. Scandinavian Pottery allied to Teutonic. Petersburg: Its Porcelain. Continuity of History. Antiquity of American People. Connection with Peru. Who were they? Successors of the Mound-builders.

The Future of America. T HE history of ceramic art carries us back to ages of which it has furnished us with the only records. Beginning almost with the appearance of man upon the globe, it brings us down through the intricate paths of his migrations to the time in which we live.

Historically, therefore, the study of the art is not only replete with interest, but promises much benefit to the student. The forms under which it appears are so varied, the circuitous route it has followed leads to so many lands and among so many peoples, and the customs it illustrates are so distinctive of widely separated nationalities, that its history is co-extensive with that of humanity.

In many cases it supplies us with information regarding nations whose works in pottery are their only monuments. Were we, therefore, to attempt to find its origin, we might go back as far as written history could guide us, and then find proofs of its existence in a prehistoric age.

It is curious to observe that, as we compare the earliest productions of different countries, we discover a similarity between the crude ideas to which they owe their origin. Daily habit demonstrated its utility, and gratitude found a cover for ignorance, in bestowing upon the heavenly powers the credit of inspiring man with a knowledge of the capabilities of the plastic clay.

Reason supplies an easy solution of the problem, but one not likely to occur to the unreasoning man of the primitive world. Of this we can easily find abundant illustration. Let us take, as examples, China, Japan, Egypt, and Greece. We will find that each reverts to the misty boundary between legend and history, or to the earlier age when the gods had not deserted the world—the horizon of mortal vision or fancy, where heaven seems to touch earth.

This was during the reign of the enlightened Emperor Hoang-ti. Of him it is recorded that after many labors for the good of his subjects, the amelioration of their condition, and the extension of their knowledge, he was translated to the upper sphere on the back of a huge and whiskered dragon. The Japanese follow a precisely similar course. Having no real knowledge, they call imagination to their aid, and solve an historical problem by the creation of a legend.

The Egyptians, more reverently, gave the art directly to the gods. Having a pantheon, they merely singled out that one of its occupants to whom the honor should be ascribed. As Osiris is their Bacchus, and Thoth their Mercury, so to the director Num, the first creature, they ascribe the art of moulding clay. Like the Hebrew Jehovah, he first made the heavens and earth, the firmament, the sun, and the moon, and, from the fact of his having made the rivers and mountains, would appear also to have evolved order out of the Egyptian chaos.

Lastly, he made man. In how many instances did the Greeks lay the honors due to some forgotten mortal at the feet of a god or a semi-divine hero? To them Inachus, who about B.

It was only when Gelanor, the last of the race of Inachus, was deposed by Danaus, that we find a Greek recognition of the early connection of that country with Egypt. Quarrelling with his brother, Danaus set sail, and, arriving at Argos, rose to the throne by the means above indicated. These statements are only of value to our present purpose as showing the close connection between Greece and Egypt, and pointing to the conclusion that Egypt dropped the germs of that art which Greece cultivated to such perfection that it won the admiration of the world.

If we turn to the origin of pottery accepted by the Greeks themselves, we are confused by the liveliness of their teeming imagination. The exercise of fancy takes the place of an undeveloped historical sense. When Jupiter wished to punish the rash impiety of Prometheus by giving him a wife, Vulcan made Pandora, the first of mortal women, out of clay. Prometheus is one of the strangest figures in Greek mythology. Thus the gods and heroes were potters, and the art was practised by them before mortal life began.

To two Corinthians, one Athenian, and one Cretan, the invention of the plastic art has been attributed; but, passing these by, let us turn, for philological reasons, to the legend of Keramos. The story of the adventures of Theseus is pretty well known. By the help of Ariadne, he killed the Minotaur of Crete, and escaped from the Labyrinth, and, having subsequently abandoned his fair assistant on the island of Naxos, she is said by some to have hanged herself in despair.

Fine tin-glazed earthenware maiolica in traditional pattern, made in Faenza. The invention seems to have been made in Iran or the Middle East before the ninth century.

Routledge Amazon. Karel Davids , Bert De Munck. Late medieval and early modern cities are often depicted as cradles of artistic creativity and hotbeds of new material culture. Cities in renaissance Italy and in seventeenth and eighteenth-century northwestern Europe are the most obvious cases in point. But, how did this come about?

Burnt clay pottery. What is ceramics?

Authors have divided the field into sections, and have in many cases presented learned and exhaustive special treatises. Notwithstanding the solid learning and critical acumen reflected in their pages, their form and voluminous character, however, detracted from their value as books for familiar and speedy reference, and left the acquirement of a general knowledge of the ceramic art a matter for wide research and prolonged study on the part of every reader and collector. The attempt has here been made to condense the leading points of the subject, to arrange them after a simple and easily intelligible method, and thus to present in one volume a comprehensive history. No hesitation has been shown in drawing upon foreign authors.

THE CERAMIC ART.

Ceramics has been known since ancient times and is probably the first man-made artificial material. Take a walk in the excavations of any ancient site of ancient settlement. What do you see in abundance under your feet? As a result of the heat treatment of the ceramic, the material is almost eternal oh, if not for its fragility!

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While our folk art and handicraft are gorgeous, the pottery is simply brilliant.

Until recently, there were really very few high quality majolica reproductions on the market. The majolica reproductions that were of reasonably good quality were usually sold through museums and generally well marked to avoid any confusion with old originals. By the mids more reproduction manufacturers were making majolica with improved quality and making more new pieces which are direct copies of old originals. The origin of new majolica is about evenly split between the United States and overseas. The most accurate majolica reproductions are probably from a company in Tennessee; whereas the country that makes the most reproductions is probably Italy. There were 25 pieces of new majolica purchased for this article. And while there are bound to be exceptions which we note later here are some general guidelines to separate new from old. Handles on new majolica--pitchers, creamers, urns, etc. This is because the new pieces are cast in a mold as one single unit.

Tin-glazed pottery

Login failed. Please enter a valid username and password. Welcome, , your login was successful! The Collection of the State Hermitage comprises a considerable part of French ceramics of the 16thth centuries that contains more than exhibits.

Suzanne Von Drachenfels. Coming together to share a meal is one of our most vital traditions.

The faience industry spread to Scandinavia mainly because of migratory workmen from Germany. A number of factories in Denmark , Norway , and Sweden during the 18th century made faience and creamware in the English manner. A distinctive Scandinavian production was that of bowls, made in the shape of a mitre, for a kind of punch called bishop. A typical Rococo concept to come from Marieberg is a vase standing at the top of a winding flight of steps. Called a terrace vase it is often decorated with a rabbit or some other animal. In a factory at Copenhagen directed by Louis Fournier, a modeller from Vincennes and Chantilly, began the manufacture of true porcelain. In the factory started work on an enormous service, originally intended for Catherine the Great , each piece of which was painted with a detailed picture of a Danish flower. Numerous skillfully made figures were also produced. The factory continues to produce fine porcelain.

Museums of porcelain and faience in France cover the history of ceramics Sevres, Place de la manufacture, SàVRES, (over the bridge from Paris) ; web site Great collections of 15thth C faience and Italian Renaisance maiolica. their manufactory; also a great collection of Japanese and Chinese porcelain.

French Ceramics of the 16th - 20th Centuries

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HISTORY OF THE PORCELAIN

Tin-glazed pottery is earthenware covered in lead glaze with added tin oxide [1] which is white, shiny and opaque see tin-glazing for the chemistry ; usually this provides a background for brightly painted decoration. It has been important in Islamic and European pottery , but very little used in East Asia. The pottery body is usually made of red or buff-colored earthenware and the white glaze imitated Chinese porcelain. The decoration on tin-glazed pottery is usually applied to the unfired glaze surface by brush with metallic oxides, commonly cobalt oxide , copper oxide , iron oxide , manganese dioxide and antimony oxide. The makers of Italian tin-glazed pottery from the late Renaissance blended oxides to produce detailed and realistic polychrome paintings. The earliest tin-glazed pottery appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century, the oldest fragments having been excavated during the First World War from the palace of Samarra about fifty miles north of Baghdad. The development of white, or near white, firing bodies in Europe from the late 18th century, such as creamware by Josiah Wedgwood , and increasingly cheap European porcelain and Chinese export porcelain , reduced the demand for tin-glaze Delftware , faience and majolica. The rise in the cost of tin oxide during the First World War led to its partial substitution by zirconium compounds in the glaze.

A-Z of Ceramics

The porcelain of the Chinese Porcelain has been known as a product of the Chinese since the golden age of West-Chinese cultures to B. But Porcelain was not invented in China, but it was the result of a long process of development. Porcelain items reached Europe by way of laborious routes from the 13th century onwards by traders, explorers and globetrotters like Marco Polo. Porcelain was imported in particular via the Dutch since the 17th century.

And School of Industrial Art. In William Young, in connection with his son, Wm. Young, Jr. For four years they made hardware porcelain, some china vases, pitchers of various kinds and a few dishes.

Historicism and Art Nouveau in nineteenth-century decorative arts were the result of a fellowship that developed soon after between science, industry, art, and education, in part to supply the rapidly growing industrial society with contemporary-style home furnishings. The decoration of these objects was based on the intellectual foundations of historicism: reverence and adaptation of past historical forms and designs combined with innovation and the expansion of available technologies. In the case of ceramics, nineteenth-century scientific research at European factories promoted experimentation by ceramic craftsmen to revive forgotten historical forms, production techniques, and firing processes, which ultimately made possible the development of a modern style.

The word "ceramics" comes from the Greek word "ceramics" - pottery, derived from "ceramos" - clay. Clay as a material for the manufacture of household utensils was known to mankind in ancient times. The history of ceramic production using firing begins several millennia ago.

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