Ramie fibre comes under bast fibre category, which can be classified as underutilised fibres. The high potential of ramie fibre is not fully exploited due to various techno-economic reasons. It is one of the strongest natural fibres having rich cellulose content. Apart from textile uses, ramie fibre can be utilised for the production of various diversified products.
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- Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical Applications
- BSCI 124 Lecture Notes
- Move over cotton, hello hemp
- Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
- PROSEA, Introduction to Fibres
- What is Hemp Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
- Ramie Fibre Processing and Value Addition
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Plant Fibres for Textile and Technical ApplicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Spinning Flax (1940-1949)
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials. The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials. As a result, there is an increase in demand for commercial use of the natural fiber-based composites in recent years for various industrial sectors.
Natural fibers are sustainable materials which are easily available in nature and have advantages like low-cost, lightweight, renewability, biodegradability, and high specific properties. The sustainability of the natural fiber-based composite materials has led to upsurge its applications in various manufacturing sectors.
In this paper, we have reviewed the different sources of natural fibers, their properties, modification of natural fibers, the effect of treatments on natural fibers, etc. We also summarize the major applications of natural fibers and their effective use as reinforcement for polymer composite materials.
Material selection in design and manufacturing of a sustainable product plays a vital role in the field of engineering design. The materials are used to explore their physical properties along with their mechanical properties to make the product better one and reach its customer satisfaction levels. The polymer composite materials are one of such materials which provide the ease of processing, productivity, and cost reduction Faruk et al.
The composites are tailor-made materials which have a unique quality where the properties can be altered by varying the different reinforcement and matrix phase Bledzki and Gassan, ; Yogesha, Compared with the synthetic fibers, the natural fibers have many advantages due to their abundance, availability, and low cost Arpitha et al. The natural fibers are introduced instead of synthetic fibers to make the composites lighter. The density of natural fibers 1. As a result, there is an increase in the demand for the commercial use of natural fiber-based composites in various industrial sectors.
Therefore, natural fibers such as hemp, jute, sisal, banana, coir, and kenaf are extensively used in the production of the lightweight composites Sreekala and Thomas, ; Thakur et al. The natural fiber-based composites have been used in automotive interior linings roof, rear wall, side panel lining , furniture, construction, packaging, and shipping pallets, etc.
Oksman, ; Lau et al. Natural fibers are extracted from different plants and animals chicken feather, hair, etc. Aziz and Ansell, ; Huda et al. The plant fibers are made up of constituents like cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, pectin, waxes, and water-soluble substances, which is represented in Figure 1.
The presence of cellulose which is hydrophilic in nature affects the interfacial bonding between the polymer matrix and the fibers because the matrix is hydrophobic.
Chemical treatment of the natural fibers is one of the ways to optimize the interaction between the fibers and polymer matrix. As it reduces the OH functional groups present on the fiber surface and also it increases the surface roughness and hence enhances the interfacial interaction between the matrix and the fibers Liu et al.
The study of natural fibers is very essential to develop eco-friendly composites. Figure 1. Constituents of plant fibers Faruk et al. The kenaf fibers are one of the important fibers belongs to bast fibers and it is mainly used for paper and rope production Hamidon et al.
Kenaf is a fibrous plant. They are stiff, strong, and tough and have high resistance to insecticides. These plants are cultivated 4, years ago in Africa, Asia, America, and some parts of Europe Saba et al.
The fibers are extracted from flowers, outer fiber, and inner core. The kenaf plants upon harvesting are processed by using a mechanical fiber separator and the whole stalk is used in pulping. The extracted fibers must be treated chemically or bacterially to separate it from the non-fibrous substances like wax, pectin, and other substances Suharty et al. These fibers can be converted into fine woven fabrics.
Kenaf fibers are environmentally friendly as they are completely biodegradable. In the olden days, these fibers were used for textiles, cords, ropes, storage bags, and Egyptians used it for making boats.
Nowadays these fibers are made as composites along with other materials and are used in automotive, construction, packaging, furniture, textiles, mats, paper pulp, etc. Nishino et al. The Hemp is one of the kinds of plants species grown mainly in Europe and Asia. It grows up to 1. The inner girth is surrounded by core, and the outer layer is the bast fiber and it is attached to the inner layer by glue-like substance or pectin. These fibers are used in rope, textiles, garden mulch, the assortment of building material and animal beddings.
In recent developments, it is used to fabricate different composites Li et al. The hemp plants are harvested, and the woody core from bast fibers is separated by a sequence of mechanical process. The woody core is cleaned to obtain the required core content and sometimes they are cut to the desired size. While the separated bast fibers are further processed to form yarn or bundles Clarke, ; Duval et al.
The jute plant grows up to 15—20 cm in 4 months, and the fibers are extracted after harvesting which is about 4 months from cultivation. In biological retting, the stalks which are harvested are arranged in bundles and allowed to soak in water for about 20 days Banik et al.
This removes the pectin between the bast and the wood core which helps in the separation of the fibers. Then these fibers are allowed to dry. The flax fibers are produced from the prehistoric period. These fibers are separated from the stems of the plant Linum usitatissimum is mainly used to produce linen Ruan et al. These are cellulosic plants but they are more in crystalline form.
Netherlands, Belgium, and France are the leading manufacturers of these fibers. These fibers are used in furniture materials, textiles bed sheets, linen, interior decoration accessories, etc. Van de Weyenberg et al. The fiber extraction involves the retting, and scorching both this process will make some alterations in the properties of the fibers.
The retting involves the enzymes which degrade the pectin around the flax fibers which results in separation of fibers. Canada is the largest flax producer and exporter in the world, produced about , tons Bos et al. Ramie is one of the herbaceous perennial plants cultivated extensively in the region native to China, Japan, and Malaysia where it has been used for over a century as one of the textile fabrics Nam and Netravali, ; Rehman et al.
Ramie is a non-branching, fast-growing plant which grows up to 1—2 m height. The fibers extracted from the stem are the strongest and longest of the natural bast fibers.
They are used to make sweaters in combination with cotton, also it is used in upholstery, gas mantle, fishing nets, and marine packings, etc. Cengiz and Babalik, ; Marsyahyo et al. In addition to this attempt has been made for developing bio-based products by utilizing them in the field of automotive, furniture, construction, etc. The ramie fibers are extensively used for the production of a wide range of textiles, pulp, and paper, agrochemicals, composites, etc.
The processing of the ramie fibers is similar to linen from flax Angelini and Tavarini, ; Bunsell, Nettle is the commonly grown herbaceous plant consists of 35—40 different species generally grown in Europe, Asia, Northern Africa, and North America Bacci et al.
The plant usually grows up to 2 m in length, the leaves are soft and green which are 3—15 cm long. The leaves and stems are generally hairy and have stinging hairs on them Cummings and Olsen, ; Fang et al. The fiber extraction is done by harvesting the plants during the flowering period. The fiber is extracted either by retting the stalks or by decorticating. The typical applications of nettle fibers are in the textile industry, bioenergy, animal housing, etc. Nowadays attempts have been made to use the nettle fibers on an industrial scale Bacci et al.
The pineapple plant is one of the abundantly cultivated plants which is easily available. The pineapple leaf fiber is crop waste after pineapple cultivation. It is a short tropical plant grows up to 1—2 m and the leaves are in cluster form consists of 20—30 leaves of about 6 cm wide. Approximately, 90— tons of pineapple leaves are grown per hectare.
Among the different natural fibers, pineapple leaf fibers show good mechanical properties. Pineapple leaf fibers are multicellular and lingo-cellulosic. The fibers were extracted by hand using the scrapers Kengkhetkit and Amornsakchai, ; Laftah and Abdul Rahaman, ; Todkar and Patil, The various applications are in automobiles, textile, mats, construction, etc.
The treated and surface-modified fibers are used for making conveyor belt cord, air-bag, advanced composites, etc. Paridah et al. The sisal is one of the most used natural fibers and Brazil is one of the largest producers of this fiber.
It is a species native to south Mexico consists of the rosette of leaves grows up to 1. The sisal produces about — commercially usable leaves in the life span of 6—7 years.
The sisal fibers are having good range of mechanical properties and are used in the automotive industry, shipping industry for mooring small craft and handling cargo , civil constructions, used as fiber core of the steel wire cables of elevators, agricultural twine or baler twine, etc. Mihai, ; Ramesh et al. The date palm is known as palm extensively grown for its fruit. The biodiversity of the date palm is all over the world comprising around 19 species with more than 5, cultivators all around the world Wales and Blackman, ; Alotaibi et al.
The date palm trees Phoenix dactylifera L. The date palm rachis and leaves are accumulated in large quantity after the harvesting of the date farm fruits every year in the farming lands of different countries. These fibers can be used as the potential cellulosic fiber sources.
These fibers from leaves and rachis can be used as the reinforcement for thermoplastic and thermosetting polymers. Some researchers have found ways to use the date palm fibers in the automotive application Alawar et al.
Cotton belongs to the sub-tribe Hibisceae and family of Malvaceae is an important agricultural crop Elmogahzy and Farag,
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest. The Columbia history of the world states that the oldest relics of human industry are bits of Hemp fabric discovered in tombs dating back to approximately B.
BSCI 124 Lecture Notes
This site is for general and professional education purposes. Information on the basics of Economic Botany. Economic Classification Fibers. Soft or Bast Fibers. Hard Structural Fibers. Synthtic Fibers.
Move over cotton, hello hemp
You've likely made a resolution in the past that turned out My recommendation? Resolve to take back control of If you are referring to hemp vs jute rope here are a few key differences:. Different plants! Hemp comes from Marijuana, Jute from Jute. Hemp , or industrial hemp , is a strain of the Cannabis sativa plant species that is grown specifically for the industrial uses of its derived products.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Largest Hemp Mill in China
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials. The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials. As a result, there is an increase in demand for commercial use of the natural fiber-based composites in recent years for various industrial sectors. Natural fibers are sustainable materials which are easily available in nature and have advantages like low-cost, lightweight, renewability, biodegradability, and high specific properties. The sustainability of the natural fiber-based composite materials has led to upsurge its applications in various manufacturing sectors. In this paper, we have reviewed the different sources of natural fibers, their properties, modification of natural fibers, the effect of treatments on natural fibers, etc. We also summarize the major applications of natural fibers and their effective use as reinforcement for polymer composite materials. Material selection in design and manufacturing of a sustainable product plays a vital role in the field of engineering design.
Extraction, processing, properties and use of hemp fiber
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus , which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae , and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius , but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis.
Fibres in general are defined as "slender strands of natural or man-made material usually having a length of at least times their diameter and characterized by flexibility, cohesiveness and strength" Lipton, Definitions of plant fibres vary from very simple, such as "a type of plant cell in which the wall has been thickened to perform a structural role" Allaby, , or "the thick-walled cells giving strength to plant tissue" Lipton, , to more comprehensive, such as "an elongate tapering cell that has at maturity a small lumen and no protoplasm content, that is found in many plant organs and is especially well developed in the xylem and phloem of the vascular system, and that imparts elasticity, flexibility, and tensile strength to the plant or organ" after Webster's New International Dictionary. Fibre plants are plants grown or collected for their fibres. They are often defined in a narrow sense, i. The present volume follows the commodity grouping adopted for the Prosea Handbook as presented in Jansen et al. In the present Prosea volume 72 species are described in detail in the 45 major treatments of Chapter 2. Brief descriptions of minor species are given in Chapter 3. About plant species whose use as fibre plants is secondary to other uses are listed in Chapter 4. An overview of the 72 major fibre plants is presented in Table 1. These include species producing the well-known plant fibres of international trade such as cotton Gossypium spp. Donax canniformis G.
PROSEA, Introduction to Fibres
First the fibre classification and some general aspects are presented followed by a summary of the most widely applied natural fibres, involving quantities, harvesting methods and properties. A closer look will be given at the manufacturing of traditional natural fibre products as part of the rural industry. Natural fibres, often referred to as vegetable fibres, are extracted from plants and are classified into three categories, depending on the part of the plant they are extracted from. When determining the properties of natural fibres, one has to keep in mind that one is dealing with natural products with properties that are strongly influenced by their growing environment. Temperature, humidity, the composition of the soil and the air all effect the height of the plant, strength of its fibres, density, etc. Also the way the plants are harvested and processed results in a variation of properties. Cotton, see figure 3. Picking is highly labour-intensive, and on large scale is often carried out by machine. In many parts of the world, however, picking is carried out by hand. The picked cotton, so called 'cotton wool' is baled.
What is Hemp Fabric: Properties, How its Made and Where
Cotton has high maintenance costs, requires pesticides to thrive, dominates agricultural systems that include it, and leaves soil depleted of nutrients, so why is such a damaging crop seen to be the only natural fibre in the textile market? Over the past century there has been so much research around the cotton plant that it still remains the first choice in fibre production. However, with the risk of demand outweighing supply, the cracks are beginning to show. No other natural fibre has ever been seen as an alternative to the 'white gold' that is cotton. It is a trusted source of income and with recent increases in yields, farmers around the world continue to grow the crop.
Ramie Fibre Processing and Value Addition
Jute , Hindi pat , also called allyott , either of two species of Corchorus plants— C. The latter is a bast fibre; i. Wherever bulky, strong fabrics and twines resistant to stretching are required, jute is widely used because of its low cost. Burlap is made from jute.
Sfiligoj Smole, S. Hribernik, K.
Amazing unused French hemp fabric. Hemp fabric is a type of textile that is made using fibers from the stalks of the Cannabis sativa plant. This plant has been recognized as a source of extraordinarily tensile and durable textile fibers for millennia, but the psychoactive qualities of Cannabis sativa have recently made it harder for farmers to produce this immensely beneficial crop. Over thousands of years, Cannabis sativa has been bred for two distinct purposes.
T HE wealth of any community is dependent on the variety and extent of its industries, the utilization of local natural resources, and the employment of the labor of all classes of its population. In locations of successful industrial operations the farmer derives increased incomes, the value of his products is greater, his lands of higher value, and the wages of agricultural labor larger. The rural population contiguous to large towns, therefore, is more prosperous than the larger farming contingent more remote from manufacturing or industrial centers.