Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The glass industry has four major segments. The container glass segment produces glass packaging products, such as bottles and jars. The flat glass or float glass segment produces windows for residential and commercial construction, automobile windshields, mirrors, instrumentation gauges, and furniture, such as tabletops and cabinet doors.
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Architectural Glass Product CategoriesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: lacquered glass and glass panel ep 2
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Glass has been a fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about BC. At first thought to possess magical properties, glass has come a long way. It is one of the most versatile and oldest materials in the building industry.
From its humble beginnings as a window pane in luxury houses of Pompeii to sophisticated structural members in new age buildings, its role in architecture has evolved over the years. In prehistoric times, Obsidian Naturally occurring glass found near volcanic regions and fulgurite glass formed naturally after lightning strikes sand were used to make weapons.
Glass blowing was discovered in the 1st century in Europe, this revolutionized the glass making industry. The technique spread throughout the Roman Empire.
Production of Clear glass, by introduction of manganese dioxide, saw glass being used for architectural purposes.
Cast glass windows began to appear in the most important buildings and villas in Rome and Pompeii. Over the next 1, years glass making spread through all of Europe and Middle East. In 7th century Anglo Saxon glass was used in churches and cathedrals By 11th century sheet glass was made by the crown glass process.
In this process, the glassblower would spin molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk. The disk would then be cut into panes. By 13th century, this technique was perfected in Venice. Stain glass windows were used in gothic renaissance and baroque architecture from the 11th to the 18th century. The examples of stunning patterns created by using colorful glass are immortalized by great artists all over the world.
The Crown glass process was used up to the midth century. These were completely flat and did not have any optical distortions. But glass was still an item of luxury as it took large resources, brilliant skill and immense energy to be produced.
In Pilkington and Bickerstaff introduced the revolutionary float glass process to the world. This method gave the sheet uniform thickness and very flat surfaces. Modern windows are made from float glass. From the beginning of 20th century modern architecture has been instrumental in mass production of concrete, glass and steel buildings in the factories we call cities. This ideology helped accommodate housing needs of the burgeoning middle class. Glass and steel construction have become the symbol of development in many countries, where people tend to see these buildings as symbols of affluence and luxury.
Once a rare and prized art, manufacturing glass has become a common industry thanks to the Pilkington process. Traditionally glass was made by blowing liquid glass derived by melting sand calcium oxide and sodium carbonate to extremely high temperatures and the cooling the liquid to the desired shape. Since a few thousand years the recipe to make glass has been the same. Pilkington process: Large quantities of raw materials clear sand, calcium oxide and sodium carbonate are brought to the glass production plant.
They are then weighed and mixed in the right proportion. Certain admixtures are added to the batch to give the glass appropriate proprieties or color. The mixture is then heated in a gas fired furnace or electric smelter, pot furnace or kiln. Quartz sand without additives becomes glass at a temperature of 2, degrees Celsius Adding sodium carbonate soda reduces the temperature needed to make glass to 1, degrees Celsius. A homogeneous mixture of molten glass is then formed.
This mixture is then floated on molten tin to form glass of desired thickness. After the hot end of the process is over, the glass is set to cool. The way in which the glass is cooled determines its strength. It has to be cooled after maintaining a suitable temperature i. If it cooled over an extremely short duration of time the glass can become too brittle to handle. Annealing glass is critical to its durability Glass making is an energy extensive process. One tonne of glass production requires 4 gigajoules of energy.
That is as much energy as a wind mill produces in a day! This much energy can also be used to light over homes. Albeit they are not constructed with glass. Its transparency can be permanently altered by adding admixtures to the initial batch mix. By the advent of technology clear glass panels used in buildings can be made opaque. Electro chromatic glazing U value : The U-value is the measure of how much heat is transferred through the window.
The lower the U-value the better the insulation properties of the glass— the better it is at keeping the heat or cold out. This trapping leads to more heating and a higher resultant temperature. It can be blown, drawn or pressed. It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties- clear, colorless, diffused and stained.
Glass can also bewelded by fusion. Unlike the original single glazing or old double glazing, energy-efficient glazing incorporates coated low-emissivity glass to prevent heat escaping through the windows. The air barrier also enhances acoustic control. Float Glass : Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear glass. This is produced by annealing the molten glass and is clear and flat. Its modulus of rupture is psi. Stronger than Rocky Balboa taking punches from psi punches man Ivan Drago.
It is available in standard thickness ranging from 2mm to 20mm. It has too much transparency and can cause glare. It is used in making ca nopies, shop fronts, glass blocks, railing partitions, etc. Tinted Glass: Certain additions to the glass batch mix can add color to the clear glass without compromising its strength. Iron oxide is added to give glass a green tint; sulphar in different concentrations can make the glass yellow, red or black. Copper sulphate can turn it blue.
Toughened Glass This type of glass is tempered, may have distortions and low visibility but it breaks into small dice-like pieces at modulus of rupture of psi. Hence it is used in making fire resistant doors etc.
They are available in same weight and thickness range as float glass. Laminated Glass: This type of glass is made by sandwiching glass panels within a protective layer.
It is heavier than normal glass and may cause optical distortions as well. Used in glass facades, aquariums, bridges, staircases, floor slabs, etc. Shatterproof glass : By adding a polyvinyl butyral layer, shatter proof glass is made. This type of glass does not from sharp edged pieces even when broken. Used in skylight, window, flooring, etc Extra clean glass: This type of glass is hydrophilic i.
The water moves over them without leaving any marks and photocatylitic i. Double Glazed Units: These are made by providing air gap between two glass panes in order to reduce the heat loss and gain. Green, energy efficient glass can reduce this impact. Chromatic glass: This type of glass can control daylight and transparency effectively.
These glass are available in three forms- photochromatic light sensitive lamination on glass , thermochromatic heat sensitive lamination on glass and electrochromatic light sensitive glass the transparency of which can be controlled by electricity switch.
It can be used in meeting rooms and ICUs Glass wool: Glass wool is a thermal insulation that consists of intertwined and flexible glass fibers, which causes it to "package" air, and consequently make good insulating materials. Glass wool can be used as filler or insulators in buildings, also for soundproofing. Glass blocks: Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, while the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed.
The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow center. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. Polycarbonate: This elastic is times stronger than glass, is resistant to most chemicals, is twice as lighter than class, has high abrasion and impact resistance. It can transmit as much light as glass without many distortions. Applications include window, green house glazing etc. Acrylic: Acrylic is made of thermo plasticsis weather resistant, is 5 times stronger than glass but is prone to scratches.
It has excellent optics, is softer than glass but can accumulate a lot of dust. This is extensively used in to make playhouses, green house etc. Glass-reinforced plastics are also used to produce house building components such as roofing laminate, canopies etc. The material is light and easy to handle. It is used in the construction of composite housing and insulation to reduce heat loss.
ETFE : Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene is a plastic with high strength and corrosion resistance. It has high energy radiation resistance properties, it is strong, self cleaning and recyclable. The versatility of glass keeps on increasing as scientists find new applications to this wonder material. Glass is now being used in the building industry as insulation material, structural component, external glazing material, cladding material; it is used to make delicate looking fenestrations on facades as well as conventional windows.
United States. Bureau of the Census. Food and kindred products. Rayon and allied products. Sausages prepared meats and other meat.
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Manufactures General report and analysis. Value of products and value added to materials by processes. Rank of states in manufacturing industries 56 Statistics showing local concentration of selected industries Summary of statistics by industries Summary for all industries combined in the United States.
A glass production process to be proud of
At Vetropack, glass production is based on the principles of sustainability and long-term success. We are prudent in our business, environmentally aware in our actions, and mindful of our social responsibility. Our pioneering work to develop a system for glass recycling in the mids is an excellent example. We constantly work on our process technologies, because every innovation improves the energy balance of our glass manufacturing. Every gram of the 1. Glass is made from natural elements. The main component is quartz sand.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Nanotechnology as a Generator of Creative Architectural Glass. It creates the relationship between the environment inside the building and the external environment of the surrounding area; this is due to the inherent nature of its different degrees of transparency. The significance of glass in buildings is related to its aesthetic which can totally enrich buildings facades, together with the functional and technological value. By applying amazing technological advances of the twenty first century and the use of nanotechnology as an effective tool to solve many problems in different fields; effect of direct employment of nanotechnology in glass architecture appears to be of great significance. This was not only made due to the creation of a new way of dealing with glass with unlimited understanding of it as a material that expresses the presence of openings and orifices, but also as a part of the building components that has a wider and more comprehensive scope to represent different parts of the building and to fulfill lots of demands and requirements in the field of architecture. This paper aims to show a new vision of innovative glass architecture, That is generally based on modern technological development and on using nanotechnology in particular, by which has allowed to use glass and its products in every part of the building, dealing with many problems to help meeting the physical and moral quality for its users and tenants and thus fulfilling the basic elements of architecture that the research attempts to access to what such an architecture has fulfilled of innovative aspects, through using procedures of induction, analysis and deduction, that are deemed as new addition glass can achieve the main factors of architecture and to establish the required durability through developing the product construction-wise, and aesthetic profile through using nanotechnology applications for glass and the benefit that meets the new functions of glass through using nanotechnology.
Top Glass and Glazing Products for 2019
Have you ever wondered how is glass made? The glass — float glass as we know - is manufactured by the PPG process. This process was invented by Sir Alistair Pilkington in and is the most popular and widely used process that describes how to make glass for architectural purposes in the world today. Fine grained ingredients closely controlled for quality, are mixed to make a batch, which flows into the furnace, which is heated up to degree Celsius.
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Raw Materials Used in Glass Manufacturing Process
It provides solutions to all problems pertaining to houses right from concept to completion. Glass is an amorphous inorganic, homogeneous transparent or translucent material which can be molded into any shape. Based on the type of glass, its raw materials are collected and different compositions are sent to the manufacturing process. Following are the raw materials for different types of glass. Batch preparation is one of the first phases of the manufacturing process of glass, which involves weighing fine ground raw materials.
Jonathan P. Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Interestingly, not only do most of these sectors have roots in antiquity, but they also share a number of common general processes. For example, all are fundamentally based on the use of naturally occurring raw materials in powder or fine particulate form which are transformed by heat into the desired products. Therefore, despite the range of processes and products encompassed in this group, these common processes allow a common overview of potential health hazards associated with these industries. Since the various manufacturing sectors are composed of both small, fragmented segments e. There are common safety and health hazards encountered in manufacturing of products in these business sectors. The hazards and control measures are discussed in other sections of the Encyclopaedia. Process-specific hazards are discussed in the individual sections of this chapter.
In countries such as the UK, the energy used in constructing, occupying and operating buildings represents approximately fifty percent of greenhouse gas emissions. Pressure to improve the environmental performance of buildings during both construction and occupancy, particularly to reduce carbon emissions from buildings, has become intense.
From security doors to metal ceilings, fabric ducts to rainscreen wall systems, linear drains to bacteria-killing LED lighting, these are the products that appeared in the pages of the magazine over the past 12 months that readers wanted to learn more about. The products were selected based on the number of reader service inquiries. Project: Aventura Mall, Aventura, Fla.
Glass production involves two main methods — the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers. Broadly, modern glass container factories are three-part operations: the batch house , the hot end , and the cold end. The batch house handles the raw materials; the hot end handles the manufacture proper—the forehearth, forming machines, and annealing ovens; and the cold end handles the product-inspection and packaging equipment.
Alex Wilson , Mark Piepkorn. The most comprehensive directory of green building products available--now in its third edition. Outdoor Structures.