Electronics manufacturing is a complex process and any decision to transfer this practice to an external supplier must be taken with great care. While the benefits of outsourcing for Original Equipment Manufacturers OEMs are well documented, there are, of course, risks and concerns. So a successful outsourcing strategy will demand a critical assessment of your current positioning and clarity of your future goals and objectives. There are many reasons why an OEM might choose to outsource its electronics manufacturing.
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In fact, calculation underlies many activities that are not normally thought of as mathematical. Walking across a room, for instance, requires many complex, albeit subconscious, calculations. Computers, too, have proved capable of solving a vast array of problems, from balancing a checkbook to even—in the form of guidance systems for robots—walking across a room.
Before the true power of computing could be realized, therefore, the naive view of calculation had to be overcome. The inventors who laboured to bring the computer into the world had to learn that the thing they were inventing was not just a number cruncher, not merely a calculator.
For example, they had to learn that it was not necessary to invent a new computer for every new calculation and that a computer could be designed to solve numerous problems, even problems not yet imagined when the computer was built. They also had to learn how to tell such a general problem-solving computer what problem to solve.
In other words, they had to invent programming. They had to solve all the heady problems of developing such a device, of implementing the design, of actually building the thing. The history of the solving of these problems is the history of the computer. That history is covered in this section, and links are provided to entries on many of the individuals and companies mentioned.
In addition, see the articles computer science and supercomputer. The earliest known calculating device is probably the abacus. It dates back at least to bce and is still in use today, particularly in Asia.
Now, as then, it typically consists of a rectangular frame with thin parallel rods strung with beads. Long before any systematic positional notation was adopted for the writing of numbers, the abacus assigned different units, or weights, to each rod.
This scheme allowed a wide range of numbers to be represented by just a few beads and, together with the invention of zero in India, may have inspired the invention of the Hindu-Arabic number system. In any case, abacus beads can be readily manipulated to perform the common arithmetical operations—addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division—that are useful for commercial transactions and in bookkeeping.
The abacus is a digital device; that is, it represents values discretely. A bead is either in one predefined position or another, representing unambiguously, say, one or zero. Calculating devices took a different turn when John Napier , a Scottish mathematician, published his discovery of logarithms in As any person can attest, adding two digit numbers is much simpler than multiplying them together, and the transformation of a multiplication problem into an addition problem is exactly what logarithms enable.
This simplification is possible because of the following logarithmic property: the logarithm of the product of two numbers is equal to the sum of the logarithms of the numbers. By , tables with 14 significant digits were available for the logarithms of numbers from 1 to 20,, and scientists quickly adopted the new labour-saving tool for tedious astronomical calculations.
Most significant for the development of computing, the transformation of multiplication into addition greatly simplified the possibility of mechanization. In Edmund Gunter , the English mathematician who coined the terms cosine and cotangent , built a device for performing navigational calculations: the Gunter scale, or, as navigators simply called it, the gunter.
That first slide rule was circular, but Oughtred also built the first rectangular one in The analog devices of Gunter and Oughtred had various advantages and disadvantages compared with digital devices such as the abacus. What is important is that the consequences of these design decisions were being tested in the real world.
In the German astronomer and mathematician Wilhelm Schickard built the first calculator. He described it in a letter to his friend the astronomer Johannes Kepler , and in he wrote again to explain that a machine he had commissioned to be built for Kepler was, apparently along with the prototype , destroyed in a fire.
He called it a Calculating Clock , which modern engineers have been able to reproduce from details in his letters. But Schickard may not have been the true inventor of the calculator. A century earlier, Leonardo da Vinci sketched plans for a calculator that were sufficiently complete and correct for modern engineers to build a calculator on their basis.
The first calculator or adding machine to be produced in any quantity and actually used was the Pascaline, or Arithmetic Machine , designed and built by the French mathematician-philosopher Blaise Pascal between and It could only do addition and subtraction, with numbers being entered by manipulating its dials.
Pascal invented the machine for his father, a tax collector, so it was the first business machine too if one does not count the abacus. He built 50 of them over the next 10 years. In the German mathematician-philosopher Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz designed a calculating machine called the Step Reckoner. It was first built in Leibniz was a strong advocate of the binary number system. Binary numbers are ideal for machines because they require only two digits, which can easily be represented by the on and off states of a switch.
When computers became electronic, the binary system was particularly appropriate because an electrical circuit is either on or off. This meant that on could represent true, off could represent false, and the flow of current would directly represent the flow of logic.
Leibniz was prescient in seeing the appropriateness of the binary system in calculating machines, but his machine did not use it. Instead, the Step Reckoner represented numbers in decimal form, as positions on position dials. Even decimal representation was not a given: in Samuel Morland invented an adding machine specialized for British money—a decidedly nondecimal system.
With other activities being mechanized, why not calculation? In Charles Xavier Thomas de Colmar of France effectively met this challenge when he built his Arithmometer , the first commercial mass-produced calculating device. It could perform addition, subtraction, multiplication, and, with some more elaborate user involvement, division.
Calculators such as the Arithmometer remained a fascination after , and their potential for commercial use was well understood. Many other mechanical devices built during the 19th century also performed repetitive functions more or less automatically, but few had any application to computing. There was one major exception: the Jacquard loom , invented in —05 by a French weaver, Joseph-Marie Jacquard. The Jacquard loom was a marvel of the Industrial Revolution.
A textile-weaving loom, it could also be called the first practical information-processing device. The loom worked by tugging various-coloured threads into patterns by means of an array of rods. By inserting a card punched with holes, an operator could control the motion of the rods and thereby alter the pattern of the weave. Moreover, the loom was equipped with a card-reading device that slipped a new card from a prepunched deck into place every time the shuttle was thrown, so that complex weaving patterns could be automated.
What was extraordinary about the device was that it transferred the design process from a labour-intensive weaving stage to a card-punching stage.
Once the cards had been punched and assembled, the design was complete, and the loom implemented the design automatically. The Jacquard loom, therefore, could be said to be programmed for different patterns by these decks of punched cards. For those intent on mechanizing calculations, the Jacquard loom provided important lessons: the sequence of operations that a machine performs could be controlled to make the machine do something quite different; a punched card could be used as a medium for directing the machine; and, most important, a device could be directed to perform different tasks by feeding it instructions in a sort of language—i.
It is not too great a stretch to say that, in the Jacquard loom, programming was invented before the computer. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback.
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Chapter 7. Telecommunications, the Internet, and Information System Architecture. The electronic transmission of information over distances, called telecommunications, has become virtually inseparable from computers: Computers and telecommunications create value together. Components of a Telecommunications Network. Telecommunications are the means of electronic transmission of information over distances. The information may be in the form of voice telephone calls, data, text, images, or video.
History of computing
Embedded computers are purpose-built computing platforms, designed for a specific, software-controlled task. These are not the typical tower or desktop consumer-grade computers we are used to work with at home or at the office. Typically embedded computers are hardened devices as their use cases tend to be mostly in challenging harsh environment conditions, such as extreme temperature, vibration, shock, dust and humidity. There are various types of embedded computers, from rugged industrial box PCs to panel PCs, mini PCs, industrial rackmount server, vehicle computers, and IoT gateways. An embedded computer is a microprocessor-based system, specially designed to perform a specific function and belong to a larger system.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
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The use of computerized systems within the food processing industry regulated by the Food and Drug Administration FDA continues to increase. The use of computerized system technology is expected to continue to grow in the food industry as the cost of components decrease, as components are continually improved to withstand the rigors of the food processing environment, and as food companies continue to update production facilities, equipment and manufacturing processes in an attempt to produce high quality, high value products. New process design will strive to achieve safe quality products, while at the same time reducing production time and cost. The use of computerized control systems in the production of food products lends itself to fulfilling those goals. As computer systems become instrumental in providing for the safety of FDA regulated food products, the FDA must verify that proper controls were employed to assure that accurate, consistent and reliable results are obtained from computer control and data storage systems. This document is intended to serve as a resource for FDA investigators who conduct inspections of regulated food firms that use computers and computer software to control operations and record data that may affect the safety of the finished food product. The following information provides a guide to those areas of specific 21 CFR regulations that have been or may be used to regulate the use of computerized systems in food manufacturing plants. This guide may not include all CFR references under which computerized systems can be regulated. This regulation allows regulated industry to electronically maintain those records required to be kept by the current regulations.
Introduction to Computer Information Systems/Print version
Computers are being used in increasing numbers in the pharmaceutical industry. As microprocessors become more powerful, reliable, and less expensive we can expect the proliferation of this technology, with increasing use by even very small pharmaceutical establishments. Computer systems are used in a wide variety of ways in a pharmaceutical establishment, such as, maintenance of quarantine systems for drug components, control of significant steps in manufacturing the dosage form, control of laboratory functions, management of warehousing and distribution activities.
Technology integration is the approach that companies use to choose and refine the technologies employed in a new product, process, or service. It defines the interaction between the world of research and the worlds of manufacturing and product application. Technology integration has always been important, but in the past ten years it has become much more important—and challenging—for obvious reasons. The number of technologies from which companies can choose has grown dramatically. Advances in chemistry, information technology, electronics, and materials science, for instance, mean that the technological bases of many industries are changing rapidly and unpredictably. In many industries, the breadth of technologies in a given product has increased dramatically, too. A computer workstation, for example, employs knowledge from almost every field of the physical sciences and mathematics—from the physics of nuclear decay, which is needed for the design of dynamic random-access memory DRAM chips, to the mathematics of graph theory, which is relevant to its software. At the same time, the sources of new technology have also proliferated. Their expertise in science and technology has been fueling the growth of a wide range of suppliers around the globe that are familiar with the latest innovations. Any company can tap those sources, so all companies must constantly monitor the places that could spawn the next breakthroughs.
Examples of Embedded Computers
That same year in Germany, engineer Konrad Zuse built his Z2 computer, also using telephone company relays. Their first product, the HP A Audio Oscillator, rapidly became a popular piece of test equipment for engineers. In , Bell Telephone Laboratories completes this calculator, designed by scientist George Stibitz. Stibitz stunned the group by performing calculations remotely on the CNC located in New York City using a Teletype terminal connected via to New York over special telephone lines. This is likely the first example of remote access computing. The Z3, an early computer built by German engineer Konrad Zuse working in complete isolation from developments elsewhere, uses 2, relays, performs floating point binary arithmetic, and has a bit word length.
Computer Hardware Engineers
The baccalaureate Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate Degree Programs in Computer Engineering report provides insights into the nature of this field:. Computer engineering is defined as the discipline that embodies the science and technology of design, construction, implementation, and maintenance of software and hardware components of modern computing systems and computer-controlled equipment. Computer engineering has traditionally been viewed as a combination of both computer science CS and electrical engineering EE. It has evolved over the past three decades as a separate, although intimately related, discipline. Computer engineering is solidly grounded in the theories and principles of computing, mathematics, science, and engineering and it applies these theories and principles to solve technical problems through the design of computing hardware, software, networks, and processes. Historically, the field of computer engineering has been widely viewed as "designing computers.
In fact, calculation underlies many activities that are not normally thought of as mathematical. Walking across a room, for instance, requires many complex, albeit subconscious, calculations.
Because an embedded system typically controls physical operations of the machine that it is embedded within, it often has real-time computing constraints. Embedded systems control many devices in common use today. Modern embedded systems are often based on microcontrollers i. In either case, the processor s used may be types ranging from general purpose to those specialized in certain class of computations, or even custom designed for the application at hand.
A computer is a programmable device that can automatically perform a sequence of calculations or other operations on data once programmed for the task. It can store, retrieve, and process data according to internal instructions. A computer may be either digital, analog, or hybrid, although most in operation today are digital.
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