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Production fabrication electric machine converters and amplifiers

Production fabrication electric machine converters and amplifiers

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What is a Variable Frequency Drive?

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Last updated: December 11, W illiam Shockley, Nobel-Prize winning co-inventor of the transistor a revolutionary electronic amplifier dating from the s had a vivid way of explaining it: "If you take a bale of hay and tie it to the tail of a mule and then strike a match and set the bale of hay on fire, and if you then compare the energy expended shortly thereafter by the mule with the energy expended by yourself in the striking of the match, you will understand the concept of amplification.

Amplifiers are the tiny components in hearing aids that make voices sound louder. They're also the gadgets in radios that boost faraway signals and the devices in stereo equipment that drive your loudspeakers and the huge black boxes you plug into electric guitars to make them raise the roof.

What are amplifiers? How do they work? Let's take a closer look! Photo: A home-made Williamson vacuum tube valve amplifier from around , built from a magazine article to a design by D T N Williamson. Photo: Testing telephone circuits with an inductive amplifier. It's a type of probe that can test a circuit without direct electrical contact and works through electromagnetic induction, a bit like induction chargers.

An amplifier often loosely called an "amp" is an electromagnetic or electronic component that boosts an electric current. If you wear a hearing aid , you'll know it uses a microphone to pick up sounds from the world around you and convert them into a fluctuating electric current a signal that constantly changes in strength. A transistor-based amplifier takes the signal the input and boosts it many times before feeding it into a tiny loudspeaker placed inside your ear canal so you hear a much-magnified version of the original sounds the output.

It's easy to calculate how much difference an amplifier makes: it's the ratio of the output signal to the input signal, a measurement called the gain of an amplifier or sometimes the gain factor or amplification factor. So an amplifier that doubles the size of the original signal has a gain of 2. For audio sound amplifiers, the gain is often expressed in decibels specifically, it's ten times the logarithm of the output power divided by the input power. Now the key thing about an amplifier is not just that it boosts an electric current.

That's the easy bit. The hard bit is that it must faithfully reproduce the quality of the input signal even when that signal is constantly and sometimes dramatically varying in both frequency and amplitude for an audio amplifier, that means volume. An audio amplifier might work better with some sound frequencies than others; the range of frequencies over which it works satisfactorily is called its bandwidth.

Ideally, it has to produce a reasonably flat response or linear response with a wide range of different input signals so the gain is pretty much constant across a range of frequencies. If the amplifier doesn't faithfully reproduce input frequencies in its output, it suffers from what's called a frequency response , which means it boosts some frequencies more than others.

Sometimes this effect is deliberate. Small earbud headphones are often designed this way so they give extra bass. Charts: Top: Linear amplification: If the gain of an amplifier is always the same, no matter what the input signal, we call that a linear response. Here you can see that the output vertical axis is always ten times greater than the input horizontal axis. Bottom: Clipping: In practice, no amplifier will have a perfectly linear response: it can only amplify so much. If the input signal is too large, the response will be linear up to a point and then "clipped" beyond it: even if you increase the input, the output doesn't increase as much.

Amplifiers also have to work across a wide range of amplitudes typically that means sound volumes , which leads to another problem.

As the input amplitude increases, the amplifier will struggle to produce a corresponding increase in output, because there's a limit to how much power it can make. That means any further increases in the input will simply produce the same level of output—a phenomenon known as clipping —and increasing amounts of distortion.

Another problem amplifiers have is called feedback —and people who use microphones on stage are very familiar with it. If a microphone is turned up too much or placed too near to a loudspeaker, it picks up not only the sound of a person's voice or an instrument as it's supposed to , but also the amplified sound of the voice or instrument coming from the speaker slightly after, which is then re-amplified—only to pass through the speaker once more and be amplified yet again.

The result is the horribly deafening whistle we call feedback. Many rock stars and groups have made feedback effects a deliberate part of their sound, including Jim Hendrix and Nirvana. An amplifier's job is to turn a small electric current into a larger one, and there are various different ways to achieve this depending on exactly what you're trying to do. If you want to boost a reasonably constant electric voltage, you can use an electromagnetic device called a transformer.

Most of us have a house full of transformers without realizing it. They're widely used to drive low-voltage appliances such as MP3 players and laptop computers from higher-voltage household power outlets, They're also used in electricity substations to convert very high-voltage electricity from power plants to the much lower voltages that homes and offices require.

In all these everyday cases, transformers are turning large voltages into smaller ones, they're "step-down" transformers , but we can also use them the opposite way as "step-up" devices to boost smaller voltages into bigger ones. If the input current is simply a brief pulse of electricity designed to switch something on or off, you can use an electromagnetic relay to amplify it.

A relay uses electromagnets to couple two electric circuits together so that when a small current flows through one of the circuits, a much larger current flows through the other.

Using a relay, a tiny electric current can power something that would normally need a much larger current to operate it. For example, you might have a photoelectric cell "magic eye" set up to receive a beam of invisible infrared light in an intruder alarm. When someone breaks the beam, a tiny current is sent to a relay that snaps into action and turns on a much larger current that rings the alarm bell on the side of a house. The tiny output current from a photoelectric cell would be far too small to power a bell all by itself.

Photo: In a relay, a small current flowing through one circuit activates an electromagnet that allows a bigger current to flow through a second circuit. Relays can therefore work as amplifiers, but they tend to be noisy, their contacts can vibrate, and they can't switch fast enough for some applications.

In this photo, you can see the spring contacts of the output circuit left and the electromagnet that pulls them together right when a current flows through the input circuit.

If you want to amplify a fluctuating signal, such as a radio or TV signal, the sound of someone's voice coming down a telephone line, or the input from a microphone in a hearing aid, you'd generally use a transistor -based amplifier. A transistor has three wire connections called a base, an emitter, and a collector.

When you feed a small input current between the base and the emitter, you get a much larger output current flowing between the emitter and the collector. So in something like a hearing aid, very broadly speaking, you'd feed the output from the microphone to the base and use the output from the collector to drive the loudspeaker. Before transistors were invented in , much larger electronic amplifiers called vacuum tubes popularly known as "valves" in the UK were used in such things as TVs and radios.

Photo: A typical transistor mounted on a circuit board. It has three connections, the base, collector, and emitter though it's hard to tell which is which from this photo. Hundreds, thousands, or even millions of these are built into tiny chips called integrated circuits. As we've already seen, there's a limit to how much an amplifier will boost a signal without clipping or distortion.

One way to get around this is to connect more than one amplifier together so the output from one feeds into the next one's input—and so on, in a chain, until you get as much of a boost as you need. Devices that work like this are called multistage amplifiers. Some types of audio equipment use two separate amplifiers—a pre-amplifier "pre-amp" and a main amplifier. The pre-amplifier takes the original signal and boosts it to the minimum input level that the main amplifier can handle.

The main amplifier then boosts the signal enough to power loudspeakers. Such things as record-player turntables and MP3 players played through big stereo equipment typically need pre-amplifiers.

Whichever kind of amplifier you use, you never get out more energy than you put in. It's true that the output current or voltage may be many times bigger than the input signal, but that doesn't mean you're generating extra energy for free—a basic law of physics called the conservation of energy doesn't allow such things.

So how come something like an electric guitar amplifier puts out more sound than it takes in? Isn't that creating energy? An amplifier almost always uses an external powerful supply of some sort and that accounts for the difference between the energy you get out and the energy you put in: the "extra" energy is coming from the power supply.

Think about a typical hearing aid. There's much more sound energy coming out of its loudspeaker than there is going into its microphone, but that doesn't mean it's making energy out of thin air. The transistor or integrated circuit chip that's amplifying the input signal has to be powered by batteries , and that's where the extra energy is coming from.

Similarly, with an electric guitar: you have to plug the amplifier into an electrical outlet before you hear any sound. Alas, there's no such thing as energy for free—"extra" energy always has to come from somewhere. Even with Shockley's mule, energy isn't being created out of thin air: the difference in energy between the match you strike and the bucking mule comes from the food the mule must have consumed beforehand!

Photo: Amplifiers aren't always electrical. Before the invention of electronic hearing aids, ear trumpets were widely used by the hard of hearing to amplify sounds. They collect sound energy over a large area and funnel it into a much smaller area, so making it sound louder—that's simple, mechanical amplification.

Exactly the same idea was used by the military to listen out for approaching enemy aircraft. In this photo from , you can see an airman red at Bolling Field airbase using two gigantic ear trumpets blue pointed at the horizon. These days we use radar instead. If amplifiers have only one simple job to do—making a signal bigger while distorting it as little as possible—you might think one type of amplifier would be plenty.

After all, how many different ways can you make something bigger? In fact, as a quick online search will reveal, there are zillions of different kinds of amplifier, they come in all shapes and sizes from single transistors used in hearing aids right up to gigantic audio amps used to power loudspeakers at rock concerts and we can classify them in many different ways.

We could, for example, sort them by what they do for us boosting radio signals, perhaps, or making the signals from a record-player pickup loud enough to push a loudspeaker back and forth or how they do it how their circuits are wired up inside ; whether they work in an analog way or using digital circuits; whether they're used alone or in sequence with other amplifiers; how much gain they give to our signal or how efficiently they use power; and even by what sorts of components they're built from vacuum tubes, transistors, or integrated circuits.

With so many different factors to think about, amplifiers can be very confusing when you first encounter them; let's try to make sense of them all the same. Every amplifier takes in some kind of input signal a certain current and voltage, which, together multiply to give a certain power level and produces a bigger output signal which may have a different current, voltage, or power.

One very basic classification we can make is between voltage and power amplifiers. In a voltage amplifier, the output voltage is always bigger than the input voltage so there's a voltage gain , although that doesn't necessarily mean there's also a gain in power because the current could be reduced at the same time.

In a power amplifier, the output power is always bigger than the input power because the product of the output voltage and output current the output power is bigger than the product of the input voltage and input current the input power. Amplifiers aren't always designed to turn a small voltage or power level into a bigger one; sometimes it's the current we're interested in instead.

With conventional amplifiers, the gain we're interested in is defined as the ratio of the output voltage to the input voltage or the output current to the input current. Sometimes, however, we want an amplifier to produce an output current that's proportional to our input voltage ; for that job, we'd use what's called a transconductance amplifier.

A transresistance amplifier does the opposite job producing an output voltage proportional to the input current. From crackly radio signals zapping through the air to scratchy sounds scraped from the face of an LP, amplifiers usually boost not a constant voltage or current but a fluctuating signal of some kind. By fluctuating, we mean that it changes at a certain frequency so many times per second, measured as so many hertz, Hz.

Audio signals ones we can hear , for example, change in the broad frequency range from about 20 Hz to 20, kHz the sound range young, keen human ears can detect ; radio signals fluctuate thousands of times faster in the range from kilohertz to megahertz ; and video signals used in TV broadcasting cover a wide band of frequencies, equivalent to running from the very low audio a few hertz right up to the very high radio many megahertz.

Because of the way amplifiers are designed, they invariably work better at some frequencies than others. That means that an amplifier designed to faithfully boost audio signals is unlikely to work as effectively with radio or video signals—and vice-versa.

General Metal Fabrication equipment such as grinders, welders, shears, brakes,and benders, are often run on American Rotary phase converters. When converting from single phase to three phase power, American Rotary phase converters produce balanced 3-phase output to accommodate both very small, lightly loaded machines and very large or heavily loaded machines Download PDF.

Forgot your Login info? Not registered yet? Grid Emulator application consists to simulate larger grid on the simulator and close the PHIL loop with real DER or load to analyze the stability of the Microgrid controller. The converter could be commanded with a real controller in HIL mode and the output of the converter is connected to a real microgrid bus with PHIL.

Power Electronics and Power Systems

Axiomatic Technologies Corporation is a quality designer and manufacturer of electronic controllers and power management converters. Robust and reliable electronic controls optimize working machines for performance and emission control. Axiomatic focuses on innovative and efficient designs, quality ISO manufacturing and cost-effective solutions. New control designs incorporate the latest in component technology and software programming. Our flexible architecture allows the user to source factory programmed controllers to meet their application needs.


A Variable Frequency Drive VFD is a type of motor controller that drives an electric motor by varying the frequency and voltage supplied to the electric motor. Other names for a VFD are variable speed drive , adjustable speed drive , adjustable frequency drive , AC drive , microdrive , and inverter. In other words, the faster the frequency, the faster the RPMs go. The converter is comprised of six diodes, which are similar to check valves used in plumbing systems. They allow current to flow in only one direction; the direction shown by the arrow in the diode symbol. For example, whenever A-phase voltage voltage is similar to pressure in plumbing systems is more positive than B or C phase voltages, then that diode will open and allow current to flow.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: motor manufacturing automatically : stator and armature production assembly line
In instrumentation circuitry, DC signals are often used as analog representations of physical measurements such as temperature, pressure, flow, weight, and motion.

The client is a globally acting premium manufacturer of motor spindles. For the purpose of expanding his spindle series the client required a new, customized frequency converter that, compared to the existing solution, made higher output frequencies and easier handling possible. The construction volume of the new, high-power frequency converter should remain the same, though. Since the client distributes only one product worldwide, the frequency converter must be able to cope with different mains voltages and frequencies as well as many different operational environments, for example, the household mains. The frequency converter should flexibly operate manufacturing spindles with asynchronous and synchronous motors in the low-voltage range with a maximum operating voltage of 3 x 80 VAC. Due to the size of the spindles, there was not enough space to integrate an additional speed sensor. Therefore, the spindles must be operated without sensor. The control technology hardware and software of the new, customized frequency converter is based on the well-proven series SD2S.

A/D Converters (ADC)

XP Power offer the widest range of power products from one source, backed with exceptional technical and customer support. With power from 0. The largest standard range in the industry, providing precisely controlled high voltage DC up to kVDC with power ratings up to kW. With design and manufacturing facilities in North America, Europe and Asia, we ensure that our product offering is at the leading edge of power technology, conforming to the latest legislation and employing state-of-the-art components and production technology.

Power electronics is the application of solid-state electronics to the control and conversion of electric power. The first high power electronic devices were mercury-arc valves.

Catalog Description: This course and its follow-on course EE16B focus on the fundamentals of designing modern information devices and systems that interface with the real world. Together, this course sequence provides a comprehensive foundation for core EECS topics in signal processing, learning, control, and circuit design while introducing key linear-algebraic concepts motivated by application contexts. The courses are aimed at entering students as well as non-majors seeking a broad foundation for the field. Units: 4. Catalog Description: This course is a follow-on to Electrical Engineering 16A, and focuses on the fundamentals of designing and building modern information devices and systems that interface with the real world. The course sequence provides a comprehensive introduction to core EECS topics in circuit design, signals, and systems in an application-driven context. The courses are delivered assuming mathematical maturity and aptitude at roughly the level of having completed Math 1A-1B, and are aimed at entering students as well as non-majors seeking a broad introduction to the field. Catalog Description: The Freshman Seminar Program has been designed to provide new students with the opportunity to explore an intellectual topic with a faculty member in a small seminar setting. Freshman seminars are offered in all campus departments, and topics may vary from department to department and semester to semester. Units: 1.

Dec 11, - Inductive amplifier testing telephone equipment. It's a type of probe that can test a circuit without direct electrical contact and works That means any further increases in the input will simply produce the same level of  Missing: fabrication ‎converters.

Phase Converters, Power Transformers, Power Accessories, American Rotary

Woodbank does not monitor or record these emails. For many years the motor controller was a box which provided the motor speed control and enabled the motor to adapt to variations in the load. Designs were often lossy or they provided only crude increments in the parameters controlled. Modern controllers may incorporate both power electronics and microprocessors enabling the control box to take on many more tasks and to carry them out with greater precision. These tasks include:. In an open loop control system the controlling parameters are fixed or set by an operator and the system finds its own equilibrium state. In the case of a motor the desired operating equilibrium may be the motor speed or its angular position. The controlling parameters such as the supply voltage or the load on the motor may or may not be under the control of the operator.


Continental US Only! We are 1 in Customer Service, Technology and Support! Phase Converter Acc. Motor Starters. Load Centers. We are using the AmericanRotary phase converter to power our volt 3 phase truck tire changers. This allows us to stock 3 phase units and if single phase power is required we simply add the American rotary converter to the package. This system not only works flawlessly but is very simple to install and does not take away from our machine in a cosmetic sense. Their technical support team has been very helpful particularly in helping us choose the correct size unit for our application.

EE Courses

Last updated: December 11, W illiam Shockley, Nobel-Prize winning co-inventor of the transistor a revolutionary electronic amplifier dating from the s had a vivid way of explaining it: "If you take a bale of hay and tie it to the tail of a mule and then strike a match and set the bale of hay on fire, and if you then compare the energy expended shortly thereafter by the mule with the energy expended by yourself in the striking of the match, you will understand the concept of amplification.

Power electronics

Energy antimonopoly act of , S. United States.


Power electronics is the engineering study of converting electrical power from one form to another. A lot of energy is wasted during this power conversion process due to low power conversion efficiency. It is estimated that the power wasted in desktop PCs sold in one year is equivalent to seventeen MW power plants! It is therefore very important to improve the efficiency of these power conversion systems.

10 Amp Dc Motor

Are you fed up with ordinary PWM circuits which do not provide perfect DC motor speed control especially at lower speeds? Then check out this outstanding single chip PWM motor speed controller circuit that will give you a complete degrees of continuously varying motor speed control right from zero to maximum. Gear Motors from Surplus Sales of Nebraska.

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