Fats and oils are not just a caloric powerhouse, but they also serve many chemical, physical, and nutritional functions in the foods we eat. Here are ten of the most important functions that fats serve in food. The ability of fat to refract light is also responsible for the opaque appearance of milk. Fats also aid in the browning process of many foods, giving them an appealing golden brown color.
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Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Food Industries Manual. Christopher G. Baker , M. Ranken , R. It is a measure of the rapidity of the changes The work has been revised and updated, and taking place in the food industry that yet another following the logic of the flow sheets there is some edition of the Food Industries Manual is required simplification and rearrangement among the chap after a relatively short interval. As before, it is a ters.
Food Packaging now merits a separate pleasure to be involved in the work and we hope chapter and some previous sections dealing mainly that the results will continue to be of value to with storage have been expanded into a new readers wanting to know what, how and why the chapter covering Food Factory Design and Opera food industry does the things which it does.
For this edition we have made a major depar There is one completely new chapter, entitled ture from the style of earlier editions by comple Alcoholic Beverages, divided into Wines, Beers tely revising the layout of many of the chapters. There is a strain of thought which Previously the chapters were arranged as a series does not yet consider the production of those of notes on specific topics, set out in alphabetical drinks to be a legitimate part of the food industry, order in the manner of an encyclopaedia.
Cereals and cereal products. Fats and fatty foods. Snack foods and breakfast cereals. Composite foods and ready meals.
Miscellaneous food ingredients. Food preservation processes. Food factory design and operations. Quality assurance and control operations. S P Kochhar. A Cruickshank Cocoa. Food Industries Manual Christopher G. G G Oliphant. J Urch. J Gordon. J Wallington. F J Palmer. Food packaging. Food issues. R Broomfield. Food Industries Manual M.
But then again, many a British grandmother would disagree, and even some professional bakers are bravely promoting Stork, which retails at about half the price of butter. To try and find out which fat is best, I pitted Stork against butter in a sponge-cake taste test. The taste test was done blind, and eight colleagues took part. They had to mark each sponge cake — one made with soft tub Stork, one with butter, and the last with dairy-free spread all pictured below — out of 10, and try and guess which one was made with butter. Starting from the lowest performer, here are the results….
BUTTER AND DAIRY SPREADS
These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion. However, in the absence of emulsifiers, this unstable emulsion breaks down within minutes, and the oil forms a layer on top of the vinegar. For centuries, cooks have added natural emulsifiers, such as egg yolk, mustard, or honey, to help prevent this separation. Today, a wide variety of nature-based and synthetic emulsifiers are available for the diverse fields that benefit from them, including food, nutraceuticals, home and personal care, biofuel, environmental cleanup, and industrial lubricant applications.
Most of the edible fats described below are solid or semisolid at room temperature and most are from animal sources. A small number of plant fats are also naturally solid or semisolid at room temperature. Plant fats that are usually liquid at room temperature can be transformed into a solid fat if they undergo a process called hydrogenation in which hydrogen is added to the plant oil. This changes the chemical characteristics of the oil, making it solid at room temperature. The process also creates trans-fatty acids, which transforms the healthy plant oils, composed largely of unsaturated fat, into less healthy solid fats containing a high level of saturated fat. Brown butter is often used as a flavoring condiment for enhancing the taste of other foods.
Processed Cheese is a blend of cheese, water and other permitted additional ingredients depending on legislation such as milk powder, cream, anhydrous milk fat, vegetable fat, whey proteins, caseinates, starches and coloring. The viscosity, texture, p. These include phosphates and citrates. Both spreadable and block type processed cheeses have similar ingredients but the proportions of these and manufacturing procedure vary according to the end product. Formulations and actual processing methods vary, however a typical process can be summarized as follows:. The mixing stage is a critical part of the manufacturing process. Correctly dispersing and activating the emulsifying agents, milk proteins and salts is the key to a stable end product with a good texture or mouthfeel. The mixture of cheese and blended aqueous phase must then be intimately mixed to ensure correct reaction between the cheese protein, the milk protein and the salts. When using conventional mixing equipment a number of problems can be encountered:. A Silverson High Shear mixer can overcome these difficulties, improving the preparation of the premix, or as a final homogenization stage prior to packing.
Butter or Stork – which makes the best sponge?
Creaming is one of the most important mixing methods used in the entire recipe. Most recipes call for beating the butter WITH the sugar as the initial mixing step. If shortening AND butter are to be creamed with sugar, initially, do not beat the two fats together; first beat the shortening, then add the butter and beat the two together.
These guidelines are intended to provide a broad framework permitting the development of more specific group or individual standards, according to the requirements of individual countries. Fat spread: A fat spread is a food in the form of an emulsion mainly of the water-in-oil type , comprising principally an aqueous phase and edible fats and oils. Edible fats and oils: Foodstuffs mainly composed of triglycerides of fatty acids. They are of vegetable, animal, milk or marine origin. Tables Restricted zone s may be imposed, with respect to the fat content and to the proportion of milk fat to other types of fat, in accordance with national or other relevant legislation. Concerning the fat content, the IDF standard states that fat spreads shall be classified into three groups, according to the origin of the fat. The name of the food shall be as specified in national legislation. The products, however, shall comply with the general requirements in Table Table
Emulsions: making oil and water mix
Due to dietary concerns, lard has gradually lost much of its former popularity. It is still extensively used, however, for:. Lard has a good plastic range, which enables it to be worked in a pie dough at fairly low temperatures try the same thing with butter! It has a fibrous texture and does not cream well. It is therefore not suitable for cake making. Some grades of lard also have a distinctive flavour, which is another reason it is unsuitable for cake making. When cream is churned or overwhipped, the fat particles separate from the watery liquid known as buttermilk. The separated fat is washed and kneaded in a water wheel to give it plasticity and consistency. Colour is added during this process to make it look richer, and salt is added to improve its keeping quality.
Functions, Classification And Characteristics Of Fats
To make this information easier to digest, the review is divided over two parts; the first, the current article, explains the Basics of dietary fats. It clarifies what dietary fats are, how fats differ from a molecular perspective, which roles they play in the human body briefly , and the importance of fats in food technology. The second part is a review of the scientific literature on Dietary fats and health. It explains the most recent advances in nutrition science on the consumption of dietary fats and how this impacts health. It also covers dietary recommendations from international authoritative bodies and the different Member States, and current consumption levels throughout Europe. Dietary fats are naturally occurring molecules that are part of our diet. They belong to a larger group of compounds named lipids that also include waxes, sterols e. However, this distinction is not always clear, and sometimes the term fats also include other lipids, such as cholesterol.
After introductory chapters which present the chemical, physical, functional and microbiological characteristics of dairy ingredients, the book addresses the technology associated with the manufacture of the major dairy ingredients, focusing on those parameters that affect their performance and functionality in food systems. The popular applications of dairy ingredients in the manufacture of food products such as dairy foods, bakery products, processed cheeses, processed meats, chocolate as well as confectionery products, functional foods, and infant and adult nutritional products, are covered in some detail in subsequent chapters. Topics are presented in a logical and accessible style in order to enhance the usefulness of the book as a reference volume. It is hoped that Dairy Ingredients for Food Processing will be a valuable resource for members of academia engaged in teaching and research in food science; regulatory personnel; food equipment manufacturers; and technical specialists engaged in the manufacture and use of dairy ingredients.
Oils and fats form an important part of a healthy diet. Structurally they are esters of glycerol with three fatty acids called either triacylglycerols or triglycerides. It is these fatty acids that give the functionality to fats. Chemically, they can be divided into four main types — saturated, cis- monounsaturated, cis -polyunsaturated and trans fatty acids.
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Food Industries Manual.
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