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Fire Control SystemsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: SYDRIVE Hybrid Drive Systems
My invention relates to the propulsion of ships and has for its object to provide such an arrangement of propelling or motive v employed, but in certain cases onefshaftmay' be employedyand in other cases more thantwo. At cruisingspeeds the turbine will run idle in a vacuum or be disconnected.
The turbines are arranged to exhaust into a suitable condenser. I'may condense all the steam in one condenser, or I may provide two or more condensers depending upon the distribution of theapparatus in the ship, and in using the term condenser I-aim to includesuch arrangements.
For cruising conditions t e high-pressura'high-speed turbines will alone extract the energy from the steam, but for high speed conditions they will extract only a portion, ed by When the ship is driven at cruisin speed, the propeller. When-the s 'p is driven at maximum or full speed-condition,. Each of the high-pressureturbines is designed to operate at a high speed and one that is materially greater than is suitable for directly driving propeller shafts. This is attaine by dividing the turbine into stages, properly proportloning the nozzles to convey the steam at the desired pressureand velocity and giving the buckets a shape and speed to extract said velocity as fully as practicable, By operating these turbines at high speed the can be made comparatively light and simp.
At full speed the highpressure turbines may for exampledeliver a little over' a fourth oft-he total ower, the remainder be- I prefer to use multi-stage impulse turbines and particularly those of the Curtis 'ing furnished by.
To obtain this result each turbineis provided with, two outlets or exhaust pipes, one leading directly to the condenser and the other leading to the admission end. The'conduit leading directly to-the condenser is connected to-the turbine casingat a point beyond the last row of wheel buckets, The conduit leading to the low pressure turbine is, on the other hand, connected to the high-pressure turbine casing at a point corresponding with one of the intermediate stages or a region of intermediate pressure.
The said pressure may be sixty or seventy pounds gage for example. In this conduit is an automatic valve that opens when the pressure in the particular stage or region of the turbine to which it is connected exceeds a predetermined value and permits the steam to discharge into the low-pressure turbine instead of into the condenser. By providing this conduit and locating a pressure responsive valve therein, the presence of an excessive or dangerous pressure in the high-pressure turbine is prevented and said turbine can pass automatically from condensing to non-condensing operation and vice versa.
This valve also permits of the low-pressure turbine running in a vacuum when power is delivered by the high-pressure turbine only. When operating as a condensing unit-, the turbine should have a sufiicient number of stages, each having the proper number of buckets operating at the necessary speed to. When operating as a non-condensing unit, the turbine should have the proper number of stages and number of rows of buckets therein operating at the necessary speed to extract the available energy contained in the steam between its pressure of admission and that of the exhaust Whatever the latter may be.
When the high-pressure turbine is of the impulse type, I prefer to provide it with a series of admission nozzles, some or all of which have suitable controlling valves operated by hand. At some point between the high-pressure and the low-pressure portions of the turbine, means are provided for cutting stages' into and out of service as by controlling the passage of steam through certain of the stage nozzles.
This arrangement also enables me to control the distribution of pressures in the various stages. V 7 hen the turbine is operating as a condensing unit, some or all of these stage nozzles will be open and steam will "pass through all of the stages to thecondenser,. In other words, in the latter case, only a part of the stages of the high pressurmmachine are in operation, the remainder running idle in a vacuum due to the connection to the condenser.
Thesebuckets are arranged in stages of which one or more may be employed. The admission of steam to these buckets is controlled by a throttle valve, and, in addition, one or more nozzle valves may be, employed if desired. By reason of this arrangement the ship can be reversed by shutting off the main steam admission and admitting the steam to the reversing element.
The electric generator and the motor are so organized and constructed that they will operate in synchronism. The admission of steam to thcreversing element then starts the generator into operation in the bpposite direction, and with it the rotor of the motor also-in said direction.
Since the rot-or of the motor is direct-connected to the propeller shaft it follows that the direction of rotation of the shaft will also begreversed. I so design and construct the low-pressureturbine or turbines that it or they can operate at a shaft speed which is adapted for directly driving propellers, whichspeed ismaterially below that at which the high I 1C pressure turblnes can be effectively operated.
I so arrange the rotor of the low pressure turbine or turbines that it will counterbalance the thrust of the propeller in large part. Such an arrangement will relieve the thrust-bearing, and hence a simpler design of thrust bearing may be utilized. By using high speed generators, they can be made relatively light and the size will be moderate for the output. I prefer to employ induction motors for the propeller shafts, each motor having a simple rotor of the squirrelcage type.
Such amotor will operate with high efficiency. This motor will, be wound with a greater number of poles than the generator, so that it will always rotate at v a speed less than that of the generator.
For example, the generatorl. By avoiding all circuit changing devices for the motor ex- 11 9 cept the pole changers, the wiring of the system is a model of simplicity, and troubles incident to faulty operation of the electrical apparatus are reduced to a minimum.
Instead of reversing the ship by reversing the direction of rotation of the gener ator, and through it the motor, I may, under certain conditions, dispense with the reversing element on the high pressure turbine, and reverse the motors by means of 2 suitable reversing switches placed in their circuits.
In this event. When a ship is operating at cruising speed, the power required is usually many times less than that required at the maximum speed and therefore, it Wlll generally be desirable, when operating at cruising speed, to use only one turb0generator unit.
A highpressure turbo-generator can readily be cut into and out of service by the throttle valve as in the supply pipe and the switch connecting it to the bus-bars. In order to control the speed of the ship whatever be the operating conditions,I vary the speed of the turbine driving the gener- 49 ator andthus maintain a state near synchronism of the electric generator and motor under all conditions of operation.
This is one of the important features of my invention, since maintenance of such a condition affords maximum simplicity combined with highest efliciency. The electric apparatus used can be of low voltage with the simplest and most direct:. This affords a bond of ideal Moreover the use of low voltages reduces the danger to life and propertyand also the necessary amount of insulation, the latter having a direct bearing on the initial: cost and that of mainconnections.
In case the ship is underway, and the low pressure turbine is disconnected from the propeller shaft, means may be provided by which a dangerous increased speed of the shaft of the low pressure turbine due 'to leakage7from a source of supply will cause.
For this purpose I used an emergency stop valve in each main steam admission, and so 'ar- 56 ranged it that excessive speed of a low pressure turbine or turbines will cause it to close. Since the low pressure turbine wheels can be operated 1n a vacuum by reason of the casing being connected to the condenser, the losses incident to leaving the rotors of the low pressure turbines connected to the propeller shaft will be very small, and the maximum adaptability can be obtained by running in this way.
If desired I can reverse the direction of the movementof the ship by installing a reversing element on the shaft ofthe low pressure turbine. If this is done, the low pres sure turbine can be used alone as a means'of propulsion whether in the forward or in the backward direction.
Such a combination affords a meansof propulsion in case of emergency, and is also very desirable for maneuvering. Inthe accompanying drawings which illustrate one of the embodiments of my invention, Figure l is a top view, partially diagrammatic, of any improved apparatus arranged to propel a ship; F igi Zis a partial axial section of the highpressure, highspeed turbine; Fig.
Referring to Fig. The former drivesthe three-phase alternating current generator 12, and the latter a similar generator The rotors of each turbine and its generator aremounted on a shaft Theshafts 14 are entirely inde-. Steam is admitted to the turbines by pipes 15,.
The exhaust of the turbines passes by the branched conduit 16 to the condenser 17, the auxiliaries being omitted to simplify the drawing. The conduit 16 is common to the forward driving and reversing elements of the highpressure turbines. At some intermediate. The high-pressure turbine 11 is provided with a similar conduit 20, discharging into the low-pressure turbine The conduits 18 and 20 areprovided with automatic relief valves 22 and 23, each of which opens when the pressure in the predetermined stage or region in the high-pressure turbine exceeds a certain value, and discharges steam therefrom into its cooperating low-pressure turbine.
W'hen the valves 22 and 23 are shut no steam is admitted to the low-pressure turbines and the chambers therein are at the pressure due to the condenser. The low-pressure turbines are permanently connected to the condenser by the conduits 2 1. The rotor ofthe low-pressure turbine 19 is mounted on a shaft 25 which forms a continuation of the propeller shaft Between the propeller shaft and the turbine shaft is a coupling 27 of suitable construction. Mounted on the propeller shaft is the rotor 28 of an induction motor, the field or stationary part 29 being mounted ona suitable support.
On the end of the shaft 26 is a propeller 30 of suitable shape, size and pitch. The low-pressure turbine 21 is connected to the propeller shaft 35 by the coupling Upon the propeller shaft is" mounted the rotor 87 of an induction motor, whose held, or. On the end of the propeller shaft 85 is 'a propeller 39 of the same character as the one previously described. The generators 12 and 13 are connected in multiple by the bus-bars , and switches 41 and 42 are provided by means of which the circuits of either or both the generators may be controlled.
To the bus bars are connected conductors 13 which supply current to the motors. The motors are connected in multiple with respect to the bus bars and conductors. Each motor is provided with a pole'changing device let by means of which the number of poles in its field winding can be changed and the fixed speed relation between it and the generator changed. In order to reverse the direction of movement of the ship, each of the high-pressure turbines is provided with a reversing element to be described more fully hereinafter.
I can reverse by using one or more of the turbo-generators. Steam is admitted to the reversing element of one of the turbines by a conduit 45 having a suitable throttle valve Steam is admitted to the other turbine by a pipe 47 valve Asv an additional means of governing the admission of steam to the reversing element, each turbine is provided with nozzle valves 49 that cut individual passages or nozzles into and out of service. Similar valves 50 are also provided for the high-pressure, forward driving portion of the turbines, whereby the speed of the turunder the control of a throttle.
Under cruising speed conditions, the steam enters the high-pressure turbines and passes by the branched conduit 16 to the condenser. Under these conditions no steam will pass through the conduits l8 and The current generated by the generators 12 and 13 is supplied to the induction motors which drive the propeller shafts. If the speed conditions are such that they donot require all of the power represented by the two turbines 10 and 11, I may cut one of these out of service and drive the ship solely by the other.
The low speed turbines may remain coupled to the propeller shafts, or they may be uncoupled at the couplings 27 and Owing to the fact that the rotors of the low-pressure turbines revolve in an attenuated atmosphere, the rotation losses will be very small and in many cases for this reason it will be found undesirable to disconnect the lowpressure turbines. Assuming that it is desired to drive the vessel at maximum speed, 4. This results in building up the pressures in the stages to which the pipes 18 and 20 are connected to such a value as will cause the automatic relief valves 22 and 23 to open and discharge steam to the low-pressure turbines.
Under these conditions all of the turbines and the generators and electric motors will participate in the propulsion of the vessel or ship. Since the lower pressure portion of each of the highpressure turbines is shut off, and since said portions are exposed to condenser pressure, the rotation losses of the idle bucket wheels will be very small. The interior of the casing is divided into stages or wheel compartments by the diaphragms In the present embodiment of my invention I have shown five stages each stage having two rows of wheel buckets and a row of intermediates that is more or less annular, depending upon the volume of steam to be handled.
The first two stages are designed and constructed to effectively extract energy from high-pressure steam. The last three stages are designed and constructed to effectively extract energy from steam of lower pressure. Steam is admitted to the buckets byv the sectional nozzle 61, each or'all of the sections of which are under the control of the nozzle valves Since this turbine is designed to operate a part of the time as a condensing unit, and a part of the time as a non-condensing unit, a means must be provided fdr cutting out a certain number of stages.
Such a means is found in-the ring valve ,62, to bemore fully described in connection with Fig. When the high-pressure turbine is operating as acondensing unit, all five stagw are in service, the steam passing from the steam chest 56 through all the nozzles and buckets and escaping by the outlet 58 to the condenser.
Heading Article Description 84 Nuclear reactors, boilers, machinery and mechanical appliances; parts thereof Nuclear reactors; fuel elements Fuel Elements Steam Vapour Genrtng. Than Hs Code No Piston 4 stroke Eng. Combustion Engines, Nes Compression-ignition internal combustion piston engines diesel
CN8 / NC8 - 2019 - EN
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less frequently, in pump-jets , an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, and sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys , some equipped with sail, also played an important early role. The first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine , introduced in the early 19th century.
US1095461A - Ship propulsion. - Google Patents
H 3 C aims- aria-2 This invention relates to powerplantaespecially for the propulsionof-ships, and more particularly power-plantsoi 'the type comprising an engine group, such as a multi crankshaftengine group;. The expression rotary electric machinetis used in the specif cation and claims to designate 'an' electric generator adapted when desired to function 'as a-motor'. It is a general object of the present invention to provide an improvement in a power-plant oi the type just described, whereby a complete selfcontained and autonomous power-plant system is obtained having great advantages of economy and versatility over analogous systems of prior art. According to this invention, the said external I source of electric power for supplying the said rotary electric machine when used as a motor is constituted by a separate generating set adapted to be driven at least in a major proportion by the heat content of the exhaust gases from said engine group.
This class relates to the propulsion of land vehicles by a motor carried on the vehicle and to the following subject matter, which may be considered as incidental to such propulsion:. The mounting of a motor on a land vehicle. Transmission mechanism in connection with specific vehicle structure. Power steering-gear for land vehicles. Power means for raising a frame or body relative to a wheel or wheels. Devices not of general application for utilizing the power of the power plant of a land vehicle to drive other machines, the specific structure of such machines not being involved. Controlling devices in connection with land vehicle structure. Gyroscopes in connection with land vehicle structure. Safety devices involving a feature limited to use on motor vehicles. Motor Vehicles provided with wheel substitutes.
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My invention relates to the propulsion of ships and has for its object to provide such an arrangement of propelling or motive v employed, but in certain cases onefshaftmay' be employedyand in other cases more thantwo. At cruisingspeeds the turbine will run idle in a vacuum or be disconnected. The turbines are arranged to exhaust into a suitable condenser.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Technologies for reducing fuel consumption of medium-and heavy-duty vehicles depend on the power train type. For instance, replacing gasoline engines with diesel engines in medium-duty trucks is a very effective technology, but heavy-duty trucks are already more than 99 percent dieselized. This chapter discusses the energy balance for a typical diesel engine that leads to a resulting brake power or brake thermal efficiency. It presents technologies for improving the efficiency of diesel and gasoline engines including fuels and emission systems as well as technologies for transmissions and drive axles. It also discusses the role of hybrid power trains electric and hydraulic in reducing fuel consumption. Diesel engines use the high gas temperatures generated by compression as the ignition source. The timing of ignition is determined mainly by when the fuel is injected. Displacements range from 3. These engines typically burn diesel fuel, and also some kerosene and some biodiesel blends.
Harmonised Tariff of Bangladesh Customs
The shaft generator on a ship is an excellent example of a waste heat recovery system , which not only utilizes the waste energy from the engine but also supplies the additional work to the propeller shaft when the main engine is underperforming. The Shaft Generator — Motor circuit breaker is usually closed, if not, an operator can close the circuit breaker via the PMS panel. This command is released if sufficient apparent power is available. The two modes explained above is controlled by PMS of the ship. This mode can be selected in the PMS panel and once selected, it will override the currently active mode. The preconditions to enable this mode are:. Under this mode, the shaft motor uses power from the auxiliary and turbine generators and then supplies the additional propulsion power to the main engine during acceleration from maneuvering speed to cruising speed, resulting in the reduction of thermal stress.
Understanding Different Operational Modes Of Shaft Generator On Ships
Если только компьютер понимает, взломал он шифр или. Сьюзан чуть не свалилась со стула. - Что. - Может случиться так, что компьютер, найдя нужный ключ, продолжает поиски, как бы не понимая, что нашел то, что искал. - Стратмор смотрел на нее отсутствующим взглядом.
US2602901A - Propulsion power plant - Google Patents
Сьюзан на минуту задумалась. - Склонность к ребячеству, фанат сквоша с подавляемой сексуальностью.
Стратмор проследил за ее взглядом и нахмурился Он надеялся, что Сьюзан не заметит эту контрольную панель. Эта светящаяся клавиатура управляла его личным лифтом. Стратмор и его высокопоставленные посетители попадали в шифровалку и уходили незаметно для остальных сотрудников. Лифт спускался на пятьдесят ярдов вниз и затем двигался вбок по укрепленному туннелю еще сто девять ярдов в подземное помещение основного комплекса агентства.
Верхняя пуговица блузки расстегнулась, и в синеватом свете экрана было видно, как тяжело вздымается ее грудь. Она в ужасе смотрела, как он придавливает ее к полу, стараясь разобрать выражение его глаз. Похоже, в них угадывался страх.
Беккер поднялся по растрескавшимся ступенькам. Внутри было темно и шумно. Приемный покой представлял собой бесконечный узкий коридор с выстроившимися в ряд во всю его длину складными стульями. Установленная на треноге картонная табличка с надписью OFICINA стрелкой указывала направление.