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Published by Icaris Ltd. Holho 8 00 Praha 8 Czech Republic www. Bondarenko V. Baust, Pres. Hecht Linde-LE. Schippl nexans. International Institute of Refrigeration IIR , boulevard Malesherbes Paris, France ABSTRACT The second half of 19th century showed both a sharp increase in the demand for cold storage, refrigerated transport, needs of various factories and in the development of successful refrigerating machines.
The IIR had then to adapt to new challenges such as the protection of the environment, to new uses of refrigeration and scientific progress. The first part of the text describes the creation the IIR, with the history of artificial cold, the event and the first years of this new international body.
The second part explains what the IIR is today, the changes that have appeared regarding the challenges, the organization and the actions. They had come to attend the formal opening of the First International Congress of Refrigeration. The Congress, which lasted a week and attracted a total of participants from 40 countries, was a resounding success. Representatives from the worlds of science, commerce, industry and government exchanged views on low temperatures, refrigeration technology, food, applications of artificial cold in trade and industry, and legislative issues.
The Congress culminated in the founding of the International Association of Refrigeration in January It became an international organization, the International Institute of Refrigeration, in While it was electrical engineering that had taken the world by storm in the last quarter of the 19th century, the baton passed to the cold industry in the early years of the new century. Buyers included breweries and ice-cream factories, cold storage and refrigerated transport companies, hospitals for the conservation of dead bodies , dairy, chocolate, rubber and perfume factories, dyeworks and factories producing liquid carbonic acid, ammonia or air.
Those involved in building mineshafts and subway tunnels soon saw the potential of artificial cold in their line of business: refrigerant pipes could be used to create a wall of frozen ground, after which it became far easier to dig out the space inside. In short, artificial cold was a growing market. The demand was perhaps greatest among breweries producing lager, which ferments at C, unlike the C of many English beers. The advent of railways and steamships boosted trade in natural ice from Scandinavia and Canada, but suppliers could not keep pace with the growing demand.
Furthermore, rising concern about The producers of natural ice lowered their prices in a fruitless effort to reverse the tide. The first machine to produce a continuous output of ice was invented by the French businessman Ferdinand Carr.
His idea was to release ammonia from a water solution by heating it, to condense the vapour under pressure until it was liquefied, and then to allow this liquid to evaporate and expand in a sealed space. This would extract heat from an adjoining space with water, which would immediately freeze. The vapour would be absorbed by the aqua ammonia, after which the cycle would be repeated. A prototype was placed in a brewery in Marseille in Carrs ice machine became rather famous when it was displayed at the Paris World Exposition of He was already doing a brisk trade before then: the Confederates had bought several machines from him during the American Civil War After some adjustments made by Mignon and Rouart in Paris, the vapour absorption device was one of the best-selling refrigerators in the years , especially in France.
After that it was superseded by the vapour-compression refrigerator, which is based on a far simpler construction. This system, which is still applied in household refrigerators, artificial ice rinks and industrial plants today, was invented by the French engineer Charles Tellier, earning him the title le pre du froid.
It uses a closed cycle. A compressor is used to compress methyl ether which was later replaced by methyl chloride, sulphur dioxide, carbonic acid gas, and above all ammonia ; a water-cooled condenser turns this into liquid, which evaporates in the space to be refrigerated in a system of pipes the main difference with regard to Carrs system and thus extracts heat from it.
Tellier built his first refrigerator in Paris in Four years later he installed an improved version, using methyl chloride as the coolant, in an ice factory in Marseille, France. Commercially speaking, the most successful machines were compression refrigerators using ammonia, launched in after theoretical studies carried out by the scientifically trained Carl von Linde.
The Gesellschaft fr Lindes Eismachinen A. By the German company had sold about a thousand machines, and around the turn of the century the Wiesbaden factory was sending off one or two of its refrigerators every day. A major innovation made possible by the new refrigerators was the export of frozen meat from Australia, New Zealand and South America to Europe.
Cooling the meat with ice proved not to be an option; steamships were still slow in the s, and clippers also took over days to cross the ocean. The problem had to be solved with machines. In , Tellier built a compression refrigerator on board the French ship Le Frigorifique. This steam-powered three-master sailed from Marseille to Buenos Aires with a cargo of frozen meat, to return to Le Havre a year later.
Though not a commercial success, the voyage had demonstrated that shipping frozen meat across the oceans was technically feasible. Bulk transportation imposed more stringent demands, and the problem with Telliers machine was that if built on a larger scale, it sometimes broke down. Besides this, the toxicity of the coolants and the risk of explosion deterred ship owners from taking the plunge. It was another type of refrigerator that made them change their minds: the air expansion machine patented by the Scottish butchers Bell and Coleman in This cooled the produce by the rapid expansion of compressed air, and in spite of poor efficiency large steam engines were needed to compress the necessary quantities of air and problems with frozen water vapour, the sailing vessel Strathleven transported 34 tons of Things moved very fast after this.
In , Argentina exported tons of frozen meat to England alone. Low-temperature science, too, progressed in leaps and bounds. The last quarter of the 19th century witnessed the liquefaction of each of the permanent gases in turn.
In , the polish team Zymunt von Wroblewski and Karol Olszewski went a step further, by inducing the blue liquid of oxygen to boil gently.
James Dewar, working in the Royal Institution, London, became the first to produce liquid hydrogen, in , after which Heike Kamerlingh Onnes won the race for liquid helium in Leiden on 10 July, .
A Congress of this kind had been held in Vienna in , to coincide with World Exposition there, but it had focused on brewers and their need for natural ice. At the beginning of the 20th century, artificial cold produced by refrigerators revolutionized agriculture all over the world and offered an immense economic potential concerning national and international food trade by using large-scale refrigerators.
The engineer J. The initiative soon attracted a wide-ranging and distinguished band of supporters including lInstitut de France, the French Parliament, the Collge de France, lAcadmie de Mdecine, major transport companies.
No-one interested in cold could afford to miss the Premier Congrs International des Industries Frigorifiques, which was finally held at the Sorbonne University on October , under the more appealing and inclusive name of Premier Congrs International du Froid, or First International Congress of Refrigeration. The broad aim was to exchange ideas and discoveries in the field of cold technology.
To keep the Congress manageable, it was divided into six sections: low temperatures, refrigeration installations, applications of cold to foodstuffs, applications in other industries, applications in trade and transport, and a final section that would examine the relevant legislation.
The name of the Congress made it clear that it was not to be a one-off initiative. Ideas for an international institute for cold and science, or for training courses in refrigeration technology, to be founded in Paris, soon proved overambitious. Instead, the preparatory committee offered to set up an International Association of Refrigeration. Its remit would be to perform research on scientific, technological and industrial applications, to set up a library covering all aspects of the field, to publish articles and inform its members, to provide courses, set up excursions, and organize a biennial Congress on the subject of cold, to be held in a different country each time.
National committees were formed to ensure that all went smoothly. The latter coordinated the submission of reports for Paris, and once the Association of Refrigeration actually got off the ground, they were to have seats on its Executive Committee. During the opening session on Monday October 5, , the French minister of Agriculture, Joseph Ruau, emphasized that agriculture, being the dominant factor in the economic growth in the second half of the 19th century, profited a lot from the science of cold and its technical applications.
After Ruaus speech, the national committee chairmen Kamerlingh Onnes, who represented the Dutch government, took the opportunity to define the mission of the International Association of Refrigeration: to bring together all knowledge bearing on low temperature. He also emphasized that research on artificial cold and its applications was of importance to all countries and all social classes.
The congress on refrigeration, said Kamerlingh Onnes, could help to expand international solidarity that precious treasure of humanity. In conclusion, he emphasized the importance of studying the physical properties of matter at extremely low temperatures. This would further clarify the relationship between matter and electricity, thus preserving the dream of energy reservoirs of a size that passes imagination. The French physicist Jacques-Arsne dArsonval, who spoke on behalf of the scientific community during the opening ceremony, also emphasized the importance of pure research.
All your machines, he said, addressing the technicians around the hall, rely on thermodynamic principles. The scientific community in turn derived great benefit from experience gained in industry: a science-and-technology spiral avant la lettre. During the closing session, he placed Kamerlingh Onnes in the limelight: his liquid helium made him the star of the Congress.
In the avalanche of recommendations that the Congress adopted on its final day, applied cold technology predominated, but there were also follow-up proposals to the goal that Kamerlingh Onnes had formulated at the opening session. The most striking was: Given the crucial interest attached to pursuing and coordinating scientific and practical work in the field of low temperatures, the Congress emits the wish of the foundation of an International Association for the promotion of scientific and other studies, with its head office in Paris, which would pursue its study of the whole field of refrigeration and at the same time continue to strengthen the already specialized work centres.
It was founded on January 25, in the presence of delegates from 35 countries. Lebon was appointed President of the new association, and De Loverdo became its director. The Paris Congress led to the establishment of six international committees. Vice-president Kamerlingh Onnes was chosen to chair the first committee, which was to focus on scientific matters, and which also included Louis Cailleted, Charles-Edouard Guillaume of the Bureau des Poids et Mesures and James Dewar.
While the Association started life with a few dozen members, by the time of the 2nd Congress of Refrigeration, held on October in Vienna, Austria, it had Argentina contributed most, with members all because of its frozen meat and the United States at , also had a strong contingent.
The second congress attracted over participants. A proposal was adopted to set up a grants system enabling young physicists to perform research relevant to cold technology in Leidens cryogenic laboratory.
The 3rd International Congress of Refrigeration was held in September in the dual venues of Washington and Chicago. This was triggered by the resignation of the president, Andr Lebon, on December 12, Following this, the director of the Association convened a meeting of the Executive Committee on February 6, The meeting in the Crdit Foncier Discussions on restructuring designed to place the Association on a solid financial basis were postponed until the end of the peace talks in Versailles.
This had a far more tightly-knit organizational structure, based on that of the International Institute of Agriculture in Rome: instead of individual members it had participating countries in six categories, paying fixed contributions. And these rules are still valid in
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Cryogenic Engineering, Second Edition, Revised and Expanded
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Двадцативосьмилетняя Сьюзан оказалась среди них младшей и к тому же единственной женщиной. Визит вылился в сплошной пиар и бесчисленные интеллектуальные тесты при минимуме информации по существу дела. Через неделю Сьюзан и еще шестерых пригласили. Сьюзан заколебалась, но все же поехала. По приезде группу сразу же разделили. Все они подверглись проверке на полиграф-машине, иными словами - на детекторе лжи: были тщательно проверены их родственники, изучены особенности почерка, и с каждым провели множество собеседований на всевозможные темы, включая сексуальную ориентацию и соответствующие предпочтения.
Когда интервьюер спросил у Сьюзан, не занималась ли она сексом с животными, она с трудом удержалась, чтобы не выбежать из кабинета, но, так или иначе, верх взяли любопытство, перспектива работы на самом острие теории кодирования, возможность попасть во Дворец головоломок и стать членом наиболее секретного клуба в мире - Агентства национальной безопасности. Беккер внимательно слушал ее рассказ.
- Где. Хейл сдавил горло Сьюзан. - Выпустите меня, или она умрет. Тревор Стратмор заключил в своей жизни достаточно сделок, когда на кону были высочайшие ставки, чтобы понимать: Хейл взвинчен и крайне опасен. Молодой криптограф загнал себя в угол, а от противника, загнанного в угол, можно ожидать чего угодно: он действует отчаянно и непредсказуемо. Стратмор знал, что его следующий шаг имеет решающее значение. От него зависела жизнь Сьюзан, а также будущее Цифровой крепости.
Стратмор также понимал, что первым делом нужно разрядить ситуацию.
Proceedings 10 Cryo
Но осуществить это намерение ей не пришлось. Внезапно кто-то начал колотить кулаком по стеклянной стене. Оба они - Хейл и Сьюзан - даже подпрыгнули от неожиданности. Это был Чатрукьян. Он снова постучал. У него был такой вид, будто он только что увидел Армагеддон. Хейл сердито посмотрел на обезумевшего сотрудника лаборатории систем безопасности и обратился к Сьюзан: - Я сейчас вернусь. Выпей воды.
Любопытным шпикам не придет в голову сесть на хвост преподавателю испанского языка. - Он профессор, - поправила его Сьюзан и тут же пожалела об .
ГЛАВА 13 Токуген Нуматака стоял у окна своего роскошного кабинета на верхнем этаже небоскреба и разглядывал завораживающие очертания Токио на фоне ярко-синего неба. Служащие и конкуренты называли Нуматаку акута саме - смертоносной акулой.
Я плачу вам за то, чтобы вы следили за отчетностью и обслуживали сотрудников, а не шпионили за моим заместителем. Если бы не он, мы бы до сих пор взламывали шифры с помощью карандаша и бумаги.
А теперь уходите! - Он повернулся к Бринкерхоффу, с побледневшим лицом стоявшему возле двери.
Вы что, морочите нам голову? - взорвался Джабба. Беккер покачал головой: - Отнюдь. Тут написано - Quis custodiet ipsos custodes.