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VITREOUS ENAMELVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Enamel Application Methods
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. A Scientific Evaluation of the Materials. Francesca Casadio. Tomandl and the s. Possible transfer of technology in the other A. Stiegelschmitt in the s. The Du Paquier Chicago AIC , and the Metropolitan Museum of Art factory appears to have developed a complete color MMA , was carried out in and , while both palette earlier than its rival, and the flight of authors worked for the Art Institute of Chicago.
Paquier craftsmen in the founding of both these fac- The aims of the collaborative project were to char- tories led to the use of similar porcelain pastes at these acterize the ceramic paste, the underglaze and over- facilities. Light reflect- ing from the surface of the glaze, as well as its interface To create hard, white, translucent, vitreous porcelain with the body, creates a lively, shimmering surface bodies, Chinese craftsmen mixed kaolin clay with finely that enhances the brilliance of both the overglaze ground china stone petunze , which contains a mixture enamels the colored decoration applied on top of the of quartz, mica, and feldspar.
The transparency of the glaze layer also permit- approximately. Lacking access to china stone, European ted the application of underglaze decoration between craftsmen experimented with other compounds capa- the top of the porcelain body and the glaze, enabling ble of fusing white kaolin clay and quartz together to painters to imitate Chinese blue-and-white porcelain create a vitreous porcelain body.
A summary of the mate- to succeed, in Dresden around , and, although he rials and methods used in the production process for died in , the calcia-rich porcelain he developed porcelain during the eighteenth century will serve as continued to be made for the next decade or more fig. Contemporary records, verified by analyses of later be discussed in detail in relation to Du Paquier securely dated objects,5 indicate that, before about , objects.
While feldspathic porcelain, which resulted from the use of the quantitative composition information for the potassium-containing feldspar flux in conjunction with oxides of aluminum, silicon, potassium, and calcium kaolin clay and temper finely ground low-fired porce- permits the assessment of the relative proportion of lain pieces. Titanium and iron occur in clay and feldspar To obtain similar compositional information for sources, and their quantification can be helpful for Du Paquier porcelain in a non-destructive fashion, we distinguishing geological resources exploited by por- conducted our analysis by using in-situ x-ray fluores- celain producers.
Our ability to differentiate sources cence spectroscopy XRF on unglazed areas of the of raw materials is, however, restricted because of the objects, including the bottom surface of foot rings, limits of non-destructive x-ray fluorescence spectros- flat bases of vessels and figures, and unglazed lips or copy. The instruments available for this project cannot rims of vessels with covers fig.
At Meissen, after shaping was completed, individual pieces were dried and fired to produce an unglazed biscuit form. Underglaze cobalt blue could then be applied to this fired body.
This vitrification process occurs over a range of temperatures, which in turn depends on the composi- tion and the proportion of paste ingredients. On cool- ing, the liquid phase transforms into a glassy matrix that permanently bonds crystalline particles and makes the biscuit body stronger than the unfired clay body — a characteristic essential to the following steps in the production process.
In Europe in the eighteenth century, blue was the only color used under the glaze, in imitation of imports from China fig. On Du Paquier porce- top to bottom: lain, underglaze blue was composed of a cobalt oxide Liquid porcelain slip being poured into a mold, In the early eighteenth century, porcelain was usually rolled out containing powder mixed with water. While this composite result prevents vided us with the opportunity for in-situ analysis of the quantitative analysis of clear glaze layers alone, it the fired porcelain body.
Transparent or translucent porcelain glazes on their proportions differ considerably. The remaining 17 per- the same technology fig Copper, cases, we can no longer see the complete optical effect for example, imparted a green color when its minerals that was intended by the designers of silvered pieces.
It also provides information about the leaded opulence of porcelain objects that were already con- glass matrix of the glaze. Archival information from sidered highly precious. For gilding, the powdered Meissen, combined with the analysis of securely dated gold metal was applied over a layer of iron oxide red porcelain pieces, has led to the development of chro- or it was mixed with a flux and painted directly on nologies for certain colorants in use at that factory.
Paquier fired colors. Of the twenty-two and Meissen porcelain. As mentioned above, the compositional CaO. The mean values for the measured oxide components, reported in tables Statistical analysis of the three log-ratio variables iden- and , show good agreement with the data reported tified a group of Du Paquier objects with compositions by others.
Unfor- about The ratio of clay relative is less than 20 ppm. Pieces produced after c. Equestrian figure, —40, Art Institute of Chicago cat. Teapot with Kakiemon decoration, c. Potpourri vase, c. Large bottle, — Art Institute of Chicago cat. Putti bottle, c. Tobacco box, c. Tulip vase, c. Saucer, c. Dish, c. Elephant wine dispenser, c. Tureen, —35, Art Institute of Chicago cat. Tureen from the Rohan service, c. Calcia-fluxed Du tight clusters see graph Additionally, the higher Paquier pieces see table and fig.
While these differences most larity underlines the importance of assessing stylistic likely relate to variations in the proportion of clay and provenance information, as well as the need for relative to the fluxes used, it is difficult to discern further compositional studies that quantify other ele- whether this difference reflects intentional changes ments — such as rubidium, strontium, sodium, mag- in paste formulation, batch-to-batch variation, or nat- nesium, manganese, yttrium, zirconium, and scan- ural variability in raw material sources.
Our analysis dium — and which may permit the development of of a teapot Objects of calcium-containing flux material. For Meissen in this cluster distinguish themselves by having objects, the opposite is true because a primarily potas- slightly more potassia than calcia, but the total amount sium feldspar flux was used. More than two-thirds of of these oxides is lower than in any other Du Paquier the Du Paquier objects for which we were able to get compositional group. The iron oxide content within a quantitative body composition contained potassia this cluster is higher than that measured in other and calcia at such levels that their ratio is intermediate groups.
The com- almost creamy in color compared to the saucer with position of this group of objects is highly variable, but which it has been paired Beaker, c. Small tureen, c. Gaming box, c.
The sculptural written evidence for a surreptitious transfer of techno- nature of figurines has raised the question whether logy from Meissen to Vienna with the help of Samuel their production required a distinct clay paste. With the exception of an armorial potpourri six Du Paquier figures for which we collected quanti- vase from the collection of Melinda and Paul Sullivan tative compositional data, four are members of the cat.
This uncertainty porcelain — at Meissen before about Moreover, the although there is not a significant statistical correla- six Du Paquier objects identified as having been pro- tion, seven out of twelve objects from this period have duced during the first period can be sorted into three porcelain bodies in the mixed flux C group. An appar- different compositional groups: calcia-fluxed, and ent trend regarding the use of particular clay pastes mixed flux B and C.
This classification suggests that to produce figures could therefore stem from their late a variety of slightly different clay paste formulations dates of production. The fact that pieces in two about twice as much calcia as potassia, but they have matched set of objects — the teapot and the beaker a lower amount of alumina with respect to silica.
This already discussed from the Art Institute of Chicago — composition may indicate that Vezzi clay pastes which were presumably made within a relatively short included a slightly lower proportion of clay relative period of time, have quite distinct porcelain bodies to silica sources such as crushed flint and other silica- suggests that the production process accommodated rich materials such as feldspars.
At this time, however, we must refrain from tainty of our conclusions regarding compositional ascribing the teapot to any particular factory, given similarities and differences between Vezzi objects and the limited information we have on Vezzi porcelain those produced elsewhere.
Studies of several more and the input of ceramic art historians on the way the securely attributed Vezzi pieces are needed to assess appearance of this object fits with the products of whether composition-based clusters of Vezzi pieces various eighteenth-century porcelain factories. Without this in the relative proportions of ingredients — clay, silica, information, it is difficult to ascribe unmarked objects and fluxes — used to produce Vezzi and Du Paquier to specific factories with confidence.
Potential underglaze blue decoration from the collection of similarities in recipes could relate to the involvement Melinda and Paul Sullivan SC Du-P 88; see fig. Ceramic art historians left Meissen. Hunger joined du Paquier in and think that this teapot was probably made at an unde- was one of the founding partners of the Du Paquier termined factory around — The form, glaze, and factory. Doccia porcelain colored enamels, gilding, and silvering. This may gar- bodies, however, are distinguishable based on their ner further evidence for the potential transfer of Du significantly lower ratio of alumina to silica than in Paquier porcelain technology to Venice via the crafts- those observed for all the other objects studied.
This men involved in establishing the Italian factory. Unlike the pieces produced of more pieces, including their glazed decoration, at its short-lived Venetian counterpart, Vezzi, the needs to be pursued in order to increase confidence porcelain paste of these Doccia objects most closely in this conclusion and to assess whether Du Paquier resembles feldspathic Meissen bodies.
In these pieces, craftsmen exported the secrets of their brilliant color potassia dominates as the flux, and only low levels of palette to Florence. When reworking the model, and Du Paquier pieces was of particular interest to different bases and flowers were added each time. The this study because of its similarity to a securely attrib- figure previously thought to be Du Paquier must have uted Meissen version.
The latter was fashioned by remained undecorated after glost firing. Colored Johann Joachim Kaendler, who was inspired by an enamels were applied at a later date, likely before the engraving after the painting of around by Jean- s, because we detected no components — such as Antoine Watteau, now housed in the Louvre in Paris.
It was observed that which may have been modeled from slightly different both models are certainly Meissen: the one formerly clay paste recipes than was used for tableware.
The figure is unmarked and distinctly unlike an was found to be typical of calcia-fluxed Du Paquier equestrienne figure made in about at the factory, objects see graph Detail of tureen cat.
The red dot in this and subsequent detail images indicates the exact spot where analysis was performed. The frequent were based on low-firing lead silicate glasses colored detection of zinc Zn and iron Fe points to the use with metals and mineral oxides that are consistent with of specific additives or modifiers in conjunction with eighteenth-century production.
In this next section we the yellow pigment. The addition of iron oxide pig- will provide a detailed description of the various enamel ments Fe2O3 to Naples yellow allows the subtle mod- colors and discuss them in the context of known ulation of the color of the yellow glaze to achieve a Meissen practices, early Italian majolica know-how, variety of golden tones or dark hues, a practice already Renaissance ceramic glaze technology, and our analysis known and described in Italian sixteenth-century pot- of the colored decoration on six Meissen, two Vezzi, tery treatises and also followed at Meissen.
Where applicable, we However, the role played by zinc in a number of will attempt to explore the possible correlation of the Du Paquier yellow overglaze enamels is more complex. Detail of vase cat. The latter ingredient, stantial use of zinc-containing Naples yellow pigment named Alexandrine Tutty, or Tutia Alessandrina, is has been reported in the context of eighteenth-century cited in several manuscripts from central Italy and porcelain production in central Europe.
The very existence of pottery is dependent on two important natural properties of that great and widespread group of rocky or earthy substances known as clays, viz. The clays form such an important group of mineral substances that the reader must refer to the article Clay for an account of their occurrence, composition and properties. In this article we shall only deal with the various clays as they have affected the problems of the potter throughout the ages. They vary in plasticity, and in the hardness, colour and texture of the fired product, through an astonishingly wide range.
A-Z of Ceramics
It is one of the properties of most materials to expand when heated and contract when cooled. These phenomena can cause problems for decorators who ignore the Laws of Physics. The expansion or contraction of materials used in making the mugs can cause problems in a number of ways. These problems will be reviewed later.
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. A Scientific Evaluation of the Materials.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Kiln-Fired Enamel Basics - With Ricky Frank
Vitreous Enamel — A brief overview of the history, manufacture process, properties and uses of these versatile products. Vitreous enamel, also known as porcelain enamel in the United States, has been used for thousands of years. Initially used for religious and ceremonial items and then also for Jewellery of the highest quality. The application of vitreous enamel is described as enamelling. The application of enamel to domestic articles such as pots and pans probably started in the early 19 th century in central Europe. The first metal used for this purpose was cast iron. Today, vitreous enamel can be applied to copper, gold, silver, cast iron, steel and aluminium, dependent on the enamel formula. Production of vitreous enamelled articles varies from craftsmen producing one off items in precious metal to factories producing up to cookers per week with a very high proportion of the parts coated with vitreous enamel. G Ball we manufacture high quality opaque and transparent vitreous lead free enamels for the industry and craft markets.
Table of Contents
Hellerstein, Joel Bender, John G. Hadley and Charles M. Typical body constituents 2.
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WO1993025491A1 - Luster pigment application methods - Google Patents
This invention relates to methods of applying inorganic based luster pigments to a surface. More particularly, the invention relates to a method of applying the luster pigments to a vitreous surface in a manner wherein the luster pigment is fixed thereto without causing an adverse appearance effect. Background Art Luster pigments have a unique appearance. They have a pearlescent appearance which is pleasing to the eye. They are described in U. Patent Nos. The pigments are recommended for use in many formulations and have found wide acceptance in automotive paints, printing inks, plastic bottles, cosmetics and simulated pearls. Other luster pigments which are commercially available, though have not been as widely used, have an inorganic platelet-like particle such as glass with the metal oxide coating. Patent No.
Vitreous Enamel, Glaze, and Color Companies in India
ASTM's paint and related coating standards are instrumental in specifying and evaluating the physical and chemical properties of various paints and coatings that are applied to certain bulk materials to improve their surface properties. Guides are also provided for the proper methods of applying these coatings, which also include enamels, varnishes, electroplatings, pigments, and solvents. These paint and related coating standards help paint manufacturers and end-users in the appropriate testing and application procedures for the coating of their concern. Additive Manufacturing Standards. Cement Standards and Concrete Standards.
How to use overglaze
Frit is a ceramic composition that has been fused in a special fusing oven, quenched to form a glass, and granulated. The origin of the word "frit" dates back to according to the OED as " a calcinated mixture of sand and fluxes ready to be melted in a crucible to make glass".
As peculiar as some of the pieces themselves, the language of ceramics is vast and draws from a global dictionary. Peruse our A-Z to find out about some of the terms you might discover in our incredible galleries.
1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Ceramics
This book gives a detailed account of the holistic research carried out on the analytical data obtained historically on the products of the Nantgarw and Swansea porcelain manufactories which existed for a few years only during the second decade of the 19th Century. A background to the establishment of the two factories, which are linked through the persons of the enigmatic William Billingsley and his kiln manager, Samuel Walker, involves the sourcing of their raw materials and problems associated with the manufacture and distribution of the finished products. A description of the minerals and additives used in porcelain production is recounted to set the scene for the critical evaluation of the comprehensive analytical data which have been published on Nantgarw and Swansea porcelains.
The powder melts, flows, and then hardens to a smooth, durable vitreous coating. The word comes from the Latin vitreum , meaning "glass".