United States. Committee on Armed Services. Preparedness Subcommittee. January 22Continued. January 16Continued.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity.
Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures.
Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices. Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries.
Understandably, injuries to the hands are very common in the laboratory. Care should be taken to use appropriate gloves when handling laboratory equipment to protect against electrical, thermal, and chemical burns, cuts, and punctures.
The use of water as a coolant in laboratory condensers and other equipment is common practice. Although tap water is often used for these purposes, this practice should be discouraged. In many localities conserving water is essential and makes tap water inappropriate.
In addition, the potential for a flood is greatly increased. Refrigerated recirculators can be expensive, but are preferred for cooling laboratory equipment to conserve water and to minimize the impact of floods. To prevent freezing at the refrigeration coils, using a mixture of water and ethylene glycol as the coolant is prudent. Spills of this mixture are very slippery and must be cleaned thoroughly to prevent slips and falls. Most flooding occurs when the tubing supplying the water to the condenser disconnects.
Hoses can pop off when building water pressure fluctuates, causing irregular flows, or can break when the hose material has deteriorated from long-term or improper use.
Floods also result when exit hoses jump out of the sink from a strong flow pulse or sink drains are blocked by an accumulation of extraneous material.
Proper use of hose clamps and maintenance of the entire cooling system or alternative use of a portable cooling bath with suction feed can resolve such problems. Plastic locking disconnects can make it easy to unfasten water lines without having to unclamp and reclamp secured lines.
Some quick disconnects also incorporate check valves, which do not allow flow into or out of either half of the connection when disconnected. This feature allows for disconnecting and reconnecting with minimal spillage of water. To reduce the possibility of overpressurization of fittings or glassware, consider installing a vented pressure relief device on the water supply.
Interlocks are also available that shut off electrical power in the event of loss of coolant flow and are recommended for unattended operations. Electrically powered equipment is used routinely for laboratory operations requiring heating, cooling, agitation or mixing, and pumping.
Electrically powered equipment found in the laboratory includes fluid and vacuum pumps, lasers, power supplies, both electrophoresis and electrochemical apparatus, x-ray equipment, stirrers, hot plates, heating mantles, microwave ovens, and ultrasonicators. Attention must be paid to both the mechanical and the electrical hazards inherent in using these devices. High-voltage and high-power requirements are increasingly prevalent; therefore prudent practices for handling these devices are increasingly necessary.
Electric shock is the major electrical hazard. Although relatively low current of 10 mA poses some danger, 80 to mA can be fatal. In addition, if improperly used, electrical equipment can ignite flammable or explosive vapors. Most of the risks can be minimized by regular proper maintenance and a clear understanding of the correct use of the device. Before beginning any work, all personnel should be shown and trained in the use of all electrical power sources and the location of emergency shutoff switches.
Information about emergency procedures can be found in section 7. Particular caution must be exercised during installation, modification, and repair, as well as during use of the equipment. Trained laboratory personnel should also consult state and local codes and regulations, which may contain special provisions and be more stringent than the NEC rules. All repair and calibration work on electrical equipment must be carried out by properly trained and qualified personnel.
Before modification, installation, or even minor repairs of electrical equipment are carried out, the devices must be deenergized and all capacitors discharged safely. All new electrical equipment should be inspected on receipt for a certification mark. If the device does not bear one of these certification marks, the device should be inspected by an electrician before it is put into service.
Each person participating in any experiment involving the use of electrical equipment must be aware of all applicable equipment safety issues and be briefed on any potential problems. Trained laboratory personnel can significantly reduce hazards and dangerous behavior by following some basic principles and techniques: checking and rechecking outlet receptacles section 7.
All V outlet receptacles in laboratories should be of the standard design that accepts a three-prong plug and provides a ground connection. Replace two-prong receptacles as soon as feasible, and add a separate ground wire so that each receptacle is wired as shown in Figure 7.
Representative design for a three-wire grounded outlet. The design shown is for A, V service. The specific design will vary with amperage and voltage. It is also possible to fit a receptacle with a ground-fault circuit interrupter GFCI , which disconnects the current if a ground fault is detected.
GFCI devices are required by local electrical codes for outdoor receptacles and for selected laboratory receptacles located less than 6 ft 1. These devices differ in operation and purpose from fuses and circuit breakers, which are designed primarily to protect equipment and prevent electrical fires due to short circuits or other abnormally high current draw situations.
Certain types of GFCIs cause equipment shutdowns at unexpected and inappropriate times; hence, their selection and use need careful planning. Be aware that GFCIs are not fail-safe devices. They significantly reduce the possibility of fatal shock but do not entirely eliminate it. Locate receptacles that provide electric power for operations in laboratory chemical hoods outside the hood.
This location prevents the production of electrical sparks inside the chemical hood when a device is plugged in or disconnected, and it also allows trained laboratory personnel to disconnect electrical devices from outside the hood in case of an accident.
Cords should not be routed in such a way that they can accidentally be pulled out of their receptacles or tripped over. Simple inexpensive plastic retaining strips and ties can be used to route cords safely. For laboratory chemical hoods with airfoils, route the electrical cords under the bottom airfoil so that the sash can be closed completely. Most airfoils are easily removed and replaced with a screwdriver. Fit laboratory equipment plugged into a V or higher receptacle with a standard three-conductor line cord that provides an independent ground connection to the chassis of the apparatus see Figure 7.
Ground all electrical equipment unless it is double-insulated. This type of equipment has a two-conductor line cord that meets national codes and standards. The use of two-pronged cheaters to connect equipment with three-prong grounded plugs to old-fashioned two-wire outlets is hazardous and should be prohibited. Standard wiring convention for V electric power to equipment.
Use a standard three-conductor extension cord of sufficient rating for the connected equipment with an independent ground connection. In addition, good practice uses only extension cords equipped with a GFCI. Install electrical cables properly, even if only for temporary use, and keep them out of aisles and other traffic areas. Install overhead racks and floor channel covers if wires must pass over or under walking areas. Do not intermingle signal and power cables in cable trays or panels. Special care is needed when installing and placing water lines used, for example, to cool equipment such as flash lamps for lasers so that they do not leak or produce condensation, which can dampen power cables nearby.
Equipment plugged into an electrical receptacle should include a fuse or other overload protection device to disconnect the circuit if the apparatus fails or is overloaded. This overload protection is particularly useful for equipment likely to be left on and unattended for a long time, such as variable autotransformers e. If equipment does not contain its own built-in overload protection, modify it to provide such protection or replace it with equipment that does. Overload protection does not protect the trained laboratory personnel from electrocution but does reduce the risk of fire.
Laboratory personnel should be certain that all electrical equipment is well maintained, properly located, and safely used. To do this, review the following precautions and make the necessary adjustments prior to working in the laboratory:. All laboratories should have access to a qualified technician who can make routine repairs to existing equipment and modifications to new or existing equipment so that it will meet acceptable standards for electrical safety.
When operating or servicing electrical equipment, be sure to follow basic safety precautions as summarized below.
Unless laboratory personnel are specially trained to install or repair high-current or high-voltage equipment, reserve such tasks for trained electrical workers. The following reminders are included for qualified personnel:. The use of water aspirators is discouraged. Their use in filtration or solvent-removal operations involving volatile organic solvents presents a hazard that volatile chemicals will contaminate the wastewater and the sewer, even if traps are in place.
Water and sewer contamination may result in violation of local, state, or federal law. These devices also consume large volumes of water, present a flooding hazard, and can compromise local conservation measures.
Distillation or similar operations requiring a vacuum must use a trapping device to protect the vacuum source, personnel, and the environment.
This requirement also applies to oil-free Teflon-lined diaphragm pumps. Normally the vacuum source is a cold trap cooled with dry ice or liquid nitrogen. Even with the use of a trap, the oil in a mechanical vacuum trap can become contaminated and the waste oil must be treated as a hazardous waste.
Vent the output of each pump to a proper air exhaust system. This procedure is essential when the pump is being used to evacuate a system containing a volatile toxic or corrosive substance. Failure to observe this precaution results in pumping the untrapped substances into the laboratory atmosphere.
Scrubbing or absorbing the gases exiting the pump is also recommended. Even with these precautions, volatile toxic or corrosive substances may accumulate in the pump oil and thus be discharged into the laboratory atmosphere during future pump use.
Avoid this hazard by draining and replacing the pump oil when it becomes contaminated. Follow procedures recommended by the institution's environmental health and safety office for the safe disposal of pump oil contaminated with toxic or corrosive substances.
General-purpose laboratory vacuum pumps should have a record of use to prevent cross-contamination or reactive chemical incompatibility problems. Belt-driven mechanical pumps must have protective guards.
State sales and use tax exemptions are available to taxpayers who manufacture, fabricate or process tangible personal property for sale. Texas sales and use tax exempts tangible personal property that becomes an ingredient or component of an item manufactured for sale, as well as taxable services performed on a manufactured product to make it more marketable. The exemption also applies to tangible personal property that makes a chemical or physical change in the product being manufactured and is necessary and essential in the manufacturing process. Some items, such as hand tools, are excluded from the exemption. A hammer, for example, is taxable even if it is used in fabricating a product for sale. To qualify for a manufacturing exemption, the taxpayer must manufacture, fabricate or process tangible personal property for sale; repair tangible personal property from their own inventory for sale rebuilders ; or repair tangible personal property from their own inventory for rental.
Rudolf F. Graf has 45 years of engineering, sales, and marketing experience in the electronics field. He has written more than 30 books about three million copies printed and well over articles. He is self-employed.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Welding and Fabrication C&C Manufacturing
Among the technical developments that have come to dominate our lives, television is surely one of the top ten. The average household watches television for seven hours per day, which helps to explain why news, sports, and educational entities, as well as advertisers, value the device for communication. The device we call the television is really a television receiver that is the end point of a broadcast system that starts with a television camera or transmitter and requires a complicated network of broadcast transmitters using ground-based towers, cables, and satellites to deliver the original picture to our living rooms. The U. By electronic methods, 30 images per second, each broken into these horizontal lines, are scanned onto the screen. The development of the television occurred over a number of years, in many countries, and using a wide application of sciences, including electricity, mechanical engineering, electromagnetism, sound technology, and electrochemistry. No single person invented the television; instead, it is a compilation of inventions perfected by fierce competition. Chemicals that are conductors of electricity were among the first discoveries leading to the TV. Sir William Crookes invented the cathode ray tube in , but these discoveries took many years to merge into the common ground of television. Paul Nipkow of Germany made the first crude television in
Designed and manufactured in New Zealand, FRAMECAD's roll-forming equipment integrates innovative engineering, design and production software to produce frames, trusses and joists that are ready to be assembled with ease. The world's most efficient design and manufacturing technology for cold formed steel, FRAMECAD equipment utilizes a specialized servo-drive motor combined with a world-leading encoder system, creating punches, cuts and chamfers with less than 0. Designed to offer increased production speed, greater flexibility and increased reliability, the FiT roll-forming machine is best suited for residential and light commercial projects.
Universal Military Training and Service Act of United States. Committee on Armed Services , United States. Committee on Armed Services. Subcommittee on Preparedness. January 22Continued. January 16Continued. January 16Continued Page. January 12Continued Page.
NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures. Other physical hazards include electromagnetic radiation from lasers and radio-frequency generating devices. Seemingly ordinary hazards such as floods from water-cooled equipment, accidents with rotating equipment and machines or tools for cutting and drilling, noise extremes, slips, trips, falls, lifting, and poor ergonomics account for the greatest frequency of laboratory accidents and injuries. Understandably, injuries to the hands are very common in the laboratory. Care should be taken to use appropriate gloves when handling laboratory equipment to protect against electrical, thermal, and chemical burns, cuts, and punctures.
The company Telefunken USA was incorporated in early to provide restoration services and build reproductions of vintage Telefunken microphones. Around the start of the 20th century, two groups of German researchers worked on the development of techniques for wireless communication. Their main competitor was the British Marconi Company. Telefunken was the company's telegraphic address. The first technical director of Telefunken was Count Georg von Arco. Telefunken rapidly became a major player in the radio and electronics fields, both civilian and military.
Wuxi Changsheng Special Lighting Electrical Apparatus Factory
The data in Investment Map is adapted from Revision 3. ISIC is defined by the United Nations Statistics Division and is a standard classification of economic activities including both merchandise and services arranged so that entities can be classified according to the activity they carry out. The classification was approved in and is based on four levels.
Сеньор?. - Буисан, - сказал Беккер. - Мигель Буисан.
Он потерял равновесие, шатаясь, выскочил на слепящее солнце и прямо перед собой увидел лестницу. Перепрыгнув через веревку, он побежал по ступенькам, слишком поздно сообразив, куда ведет эта лестница.
И что же из этого следует. - Из этого следует, - Джабба шумно вздохнул, - что Стратмор такой же псих, как и все его сотруднички. Однако я уверяю тебя, что ТРАНСТЕКСТ он любит куда больше своей дражайшей супруги.