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Aquatic mammalVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Sea Monsters Size Comparison
Tool-use research has focused primarily on land-based animals, with less consideration given to aquatic animals and the environmental challenges and conditions they face. Here, we review aquatic tool use and examine the contributing ecological, physiological, cognitive and social factors.
Tool use among aquatic animals is rare but taxonomically diverse, occurring in fish, cephalopods, mammals, crabs, urchins and possibly gastropods. While additional research is required, the scarcity of tool use can likely be attributable to the characteristics of aquatic habitats, which are generally not conducive to tool use. Nonetheless, studying tool use by aquatic animals provides insights into the conditions that promote and inhibit tool-use behaviour across biomes.
Like land-based tool users, aquatic animals tend to find tools on the substrate and use tools during foraging. However, unlike on land, tool users in water often use other animals and their products and water itself as a tool. Among sea otters and dolphins, the two aquatic tool users studied in greatest detail, some individuals specialize in tool use, which is vertically socially transmitted possibly because of their long dependency periods.
In all, the contrasts between aquatic- and land-based tool users enlighten our understanding of the adaptive value of tool-use behaviour. Two of the most familiar cases, sea otters Enhydra lutris and bottlenose dolphins Tursiops sp. However, to fully understand the proximate and ultimate functions of tool use, we must consider tool-use behaviour in all environments, including where it might be least expected.
Accordingly, we review tool-use and tool-use-like behaviour by wild animals whose primary habitat is in the water e. Because most of our knowledge regarding animal tool use comes from land-based systems, care must be taken when defining tool use to ensure the definition is also appropriate for aquatic animals.
In this review, we adopt the definition recently proposed by Shumaker et al. Studies of tool use in aquatic systems differ remarkably from those on land. In particular, observational biases play a much larger role because of the challenges associated with underwater research.
This is even further exacerbated by the fact that tool use is generally a small proportion of an animal's activity budget, meaning that many hours of observation are required [ 6 ]. Furthermore, research in aquatic systems is primarily restricted to coastal, shallow and surface water habitats more than pelagic, resulting in both environmental and taxon-specific biases e. Additionally, while there is long-standing interest in tool use by birds and primates [ 7 , 8 ], tool use in aquatic fauna has received less attention.
Many potential cases of aquatic tool use are not described as such and only offer basic descriptive data. Nonetheless, tool use or potential tool use occurs in echinoids, crustaceans, gastropods, cephalopods, marine mammals and both ray-finned and cartilaginous fishes. In our review, we found 30 aquatic species that use tools table 1. Additional species exhibit tool-use-like behaviour, but more observations are required to establish whether the behaviour qualifies as tool use.
In table 1 and below, we summarize these behaviours according to their function. Tool use by aquatic animals. Numbers in brackets indicate sources. Several urchin species and gastropods of the family Xenophoridae also decorate themselves, which may provide similar benefits [ 13 , 20 , 52 , 56 , 58 , 59 ]. While many of these behaviours might be tool use, most descriptions are not sufficiently detailed to determine whether the objects are used conditionally, i.
However, studies on four species of crabs and three species of urchins provide adequate data to confirm tool use table 1. Cephalopods also use tools for protection. Veined octopodes Amphioctopus marginatus off the coast of Northern Sulawesi and Bali in Indonesia have recently been observed using coconut shells for protection [ 15 ]. These octopodes carry shell s around in a non-functional form, and then use their tools when threatened by creating an enclosed dome-like shelter.
This suggests both goal-directed behaviour and implementing the tool only as required. Octopodes, as well as squids and cuttlefishes, also use water as a tool for protection by using jets of water to aid in burrowing for camouflage [ 14 , 17 — 19 ]. Several fish species use water as a tool for parental care table 1.
In fact, hundreds of fish species fan their eggs with water to keep them clean and oxygenated [ 47 ], but we have difficulty considering such behaviour tool use, because there is no delineated object separate from the environmental medium. This contrasts with gouramis, which use discrete water jets as tools to place and retrieve their eggs above water [ 25 , 26 ]. Other fishes use objects derived from the substrate for parental care.
Several species of cichlids and at least one species of catfish lay their eggs on detached leaves or loose detritus that can be moved when the eggs are in danger or retrieved if leaves become detached from the nest [ 24 , 49 , 50 , 61 ]. While we consider the first case tool use, the second case is ambiguous because leaves could function primarily as substrate for egg attachment not tool use rather than as a mode of transportation tool use.
Most aquatic tool use occurs in a foraging context table 1. Many aquatic animals use water jets to locate and capture prey with two of the best-known cases occurring in archerfish [ 36 , 37 ], but similar behaviour also occurs in gouramis [ 25 , 38 , 39 ], pufferfish [ 35 ], triggerfish [ 33 ], rays [ 28 , 34 ], cephalopods [ 14 , 31 ] and perhaps Irrawaddy dolphins Orcaella brevirostris [ 62 , 63 ].
Rays and skates fan water to help uncover benthic prey [ 46 ], imprints of which can even be found in the geological record [ 68 ]. Killer whales Orcinus orca create waves, sometimes singly but usually in coordinated groups, to wash prey off ice floes [ 45 ]. As with egg-fanning, we have difficulty considering these behaviours tool use, because the water being used is not easily differentiated from the environmental medium.
Other object use is less ambiguous and clearly meets the definition of tool use. For example, octopodes use objects to prop open bivalves, allowing them to eat the soft prey inside [ 29 , 30 ], but probably the most noted example of aquatic tool use occurs in sea otters. When foraging, sea otters often use objects as anvils to smash open prey [ 2 ], primarily gastropods and bivalves [ 69 ]. In contrast to anvil use by some fish [ 70 ], otters directly manipulate their anvils.
Otters also use objects as hammers, or use one as a hammer and another as an anvil, and even sometimes wrap crabs in kelp to immobilize them while the otters consume other captured prey. Sea otters also use tools underwater by using rocks or large shells to pry or hammer abalone from the substrate [ 2 ]. In addition to water use by killer whales and Irrawaddy dolphins, cetaceans demonstrate a variety of other tool-use, or possible tool-use, behaviour.
Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae singly and collectively expel bubbles to create nets that encircle, contain and concentrate schooling prey for easy gulping [ 27 , 71 ]. Bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in Florida Bay use a similar netting technique known as mud-ring feeding. One dolphin encircles prey with a mud plume by beating its tail flukes on the substrate, causing fish to jump into the mouths of one or more waiting dolphins [ 40 ].
Lone dolphins off the Florida Keys have also been observed creating mud plumes to catch prey [ 41 ]. One of best known cases of cetacean tool use involves a subset approx. These dolphins the spongers tear basket sponges up from the seabed and wear them over their beaks for protection while foraging sponging along the seafloor [ 3 , 4 , 72 ]. A similar behaviour has been observed once in a humpback dolphin Sousa chinensis off the northeast coast of Australia [ 65 ], but more observations are required.
Sponging is thought to provide access to otherwise inaccessible prey primarily barred sandperch, Parapercis nebulosa and reduce intraspecific competition [ 72 ].
To date, over 50 spongers have been identified in each western and eastern gulf of Shark Bay [ 4 , 73 ]. Dolphins primarily use sponges of the genus Echinodictyum , but also Ircinia and Pseudoceratina [ 74 ], and sometimes even non-conical sponges when first learning to sponge, all of which only exist in channel habitat [ 72 , 75 ]. Shark Bay dolphins use objects in several other ways that may also prove to be tool use.
Dolphins have also been observed surfacing with the shells of large dead gastropods on their beaks, at least some of which contain fish prey E. This behaviour was previously referred to as conching with Turbinella sp.
Krzyszczyk —, personal communication. Considerable ambiguity remains regarding this behaviour and whether it qualifies as tool use. Several instances of tool-use behaviour by aquatic animals do not clearly fall into any broad functional category.
For instance, octopodes use water jets to deter scavenging fish, move unwanted debris and even to shoot human experimenters [ 14 , 42 , 43 ], whereas gray hermit crabs Pagurus pollicaris use sea anemones to aid in balance [ 16 ].
Two snail species move bits of sand along their propodium foot when inverted, which eventually helps to right the animal, but such behaviour could just be the result of their normal locomotory movement and might not qualify as tool use [ 66 ]. Some marine mammals use objects in other contexts.
Sea otters sometimes wrap themselves in kelp, which aids in buoyancy and helps maintain their location during rest [ 44 ]. Similar to some land-based animals [ 78 — 81 ], several aquatic taxa have specific physiological adaptations or tendencies that predispose them to tool use. For example, archerfish have a modified mouth morphology that aids in water shooting [ 82 ], many crabs have specialized hair-like structures setae that securely hold objects [ 48 ], and sea otters have retractile claws on their forelimbs and object-carrying pouches between their forelimbs and chest [ 83 ].
However, most adaptations for life in the water do not promote the use of tools and instead result in an efficient streamlined body plan that generally lacks appendages capable of manipulation. In fact, many characteristics of aquatic environments help explain why tool use is comparatively rare in water, observational biases notwithstanding. For example, buoyancy counteracts gravity, meaning that not only are animals lighter, but so are potential tools, making them less useful.
Furthermore, given the movement and viscosity of water, striking or even controlling objects underwater is more difficult than in air especially elongated objects, see Gowlett [ 84 ]. Finally, aquatic and especially marine habitats are much more three-dimensional and have fewer objects than land-based habitats, where substrates and objects are plentiful. Thus, merely by living in water, aquatic animals have few opportunities and less physical ability to use tools.
Nonetheless, among aquatic organisms benthic animals tend to have the ecological conditions most likely to favour tool use: a hard substrate, available objects, small home ranges, less streamlined morphology and greater manipulative ability. Many non-benthic animals will, in fact, never see the substrate or come into contact with any objects besides floating debris or other pelagic organisms. It is not surprising then that most tools used in water originate from the benthos, even kelp, which sea otters use at the water's surface table 1.
In fact, terrestrial living has been proposed as a major factor driving tool use among primates [ 86 ]. Unlike arboreal habitats, terrestrial environments offer a larger number of substrates and objects, and terrestrial living allows for tool re-use, opportunities for combining tools and cumulative technology reviewed in [ 86 ].
Thus, both on land and in water, the adaptive value of tool use and its presence depend greatly on the specific ecological conditions animals face [ 87 ]. Like on land, the presence of tool use among some aquatic animals appears to require learning and higher cognition, whereas in others, learning may not be required but may improve tool-use efficacy.
The majority of decorating behaviours by crabs and urchins are likely innate and require little learning [ 57 ]. In fact, many decorating behaviours are obligate [ 48 ], and crabs that have been blindfolded and whose brains have been functionally disconnected from their appendages, still perform the behaviour [ 53 , 88 ]. Among archerfish, learning is probably not required for the tool use, but does allow fish to account for changes in temperature, salinity and the location and size of their prey.
Interestingly, fish learn much faster in the presence of trained conspecifics, which suggests social learning [ 37 , 89 ]. Captive largespot river stingrays Potamotrygon castexi learn to extract food from plastic tubes using water jets [ 32 ], which may illustrate problem-solving abilities that are common among fish, but for most cases of fish tool use, additional studies are required to determine the role of learning.
The bigger-brained tool users, cephalopods, sea otters and cetaceans, show substantial flexibility in whether or not they use tools and in the types of tools they use, evidence that the occurrence of tool use depends on learning.
Cuttlefish learn to adjust their behaviour according to prey and use water jets only when necessary [ 14 ]. Octopodes demonstrate variable and impressive home construction [ 90 ], which, although not classified as tool use, is evident of their great flexibility in object manipulation.
Many sea otters have never been observed using tools and instead target soft-bodied prey [ 69 ]. Among tool-using otters, variation in tool type and use exists with otters spending 0.
Like archerfish, sea otters also improve their tool use performance with experience [ 91 ]. In fact, sea otters appear to learn to use tools primarily through vertical social transmission, with pups adopting the same techniques, tools and diet as their mothers [ 91 — 93 ].
Brears Blog. Regions: Antarctica, Arctic. Highlights: Whale safari. The humpback whale has a small dorsal fin with a distinctive hump at the front.
The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin
Beluga whales, also called white whales, have white skin that is adapted to its habitat in the Arctic. The word "beluga" comes from the Russian word for "white. That was a white sperm whale. They also are not related to the sturgeon of the same name, which is the source of a type of caviar.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. R ecent scientific literature has raised broad and multiple issues concerning changes to marine populations and food webs caused by fisheries removals. Vitousek et al. Yields from ocean fisheries are approaching their upper limits Botsford et al. One can assume that removals of this magnitude must have some appreciable impact on ocean ecosystems; but to what extent has the species composition and biodiversity of the ocean changed as a result of fishing? And to what extent have these changes altered the current and potential benefits from the ocean as well as the functioning of ocean ecosystems?
Humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae are large baleen whales up to 14 m long that feed on a small prey in dense concentrations, such as krill or herrings. Humpbacks whales have large flukes relative to their size providing greater thrust for quick maneuvers. While other baleen whales feed by swimming rapidly forward, humpbacks are adapted for fine-scale movement to create bubble nets. Behaviorally, humpback whales capture prey by engaging in complex feeding maneuvers that are often accompanied by the apparently directed use of air bubble clouds the production of single or multiple bursts of seltzer-sized bubbles to corral or herd fish. These whales create bubble nets to corral and contain planktonic prey into a small area so that they can more efficiently scoop them up in their large filter-feeding mouths. Based on surface observations, these bubble-feeding behaviors appear to vary in nature among both individuals and regions. To learn more about how these whales use bubble nets in feeding, David Wiley and colleagues attached digital suction cup tags to whales that recorded depth and orientation in 3-D, allowing the scientists to recreate three dimensional images of whale swimming behavior and bubble release. The data revealed the release of bubbles while swimming in upward spirals and during a novel behavior called "double-loops" not previously known.
How humpback whales catch prey with bubble nets
Performed the experiments: JR. Analyzed the data: JR. It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle.
It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. The biological pump mediates the removal of carbon and nitrogen from the euphotic zone through the downward flux of aggregates, feces, and vertical migration of invertebrates and fish . Copepods and other zooplankton produce sinking fecal pellets and contribute to downward transport of dissolved and particulate organic matter by respiring and excreting at depth during migration cycles, thus playing an important role in the export of nutrients N, P, and Fe from surface waters  , .
У нас возник кризис, и я пытаюсь с ним справиться. - Он задумчиво посмотрел на. - Я являюсь заместителем оперативного директора агентства. - Усталая улыбка промелькнула на его лице.
- И потом, я не. Рядом со мной Сьюзан Флетчер. В тот момент Сьюзан поняла, за что уважает Тревора Стратмора. Все эти десять лет, в штиль и в бурю, он вел ее за. Уверенно и неуклонно.
Facts About Beluga Whales
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- Итак, даже в самых экстремальных условиях самый длинный шифр продержался в ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ около трех часов. - Да. Более или менее так, - кивнула Сьюзан.
Tool use by aquatic animals
Пуля срикошетила от стены. Рванувшись вниз за своей жертвой, он продолжал держаться вплотную к внешней стене, что позволило бы ему стрелять под наибольшим углом. Но всякий раз, когда перед ним открывался очередной виток спирали, Беккер оставался вне поля зрения и создавалось впечатление, что тот постоянно находится впереди на сто восемьдесят градусов.
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Вы хотите дать взятку представителю закона? - зарычал. - Нет, конечно. Я просто подумал… - Толстяк быстро убрал бумажник.
Polar Marine Visitors: the Whales of Antarctica and the Arctic
Если он позволит Хейлу вывести Сьюзан из шифровалки и уехать, у него не будет никаких гарантий. Они уедут, потом остановятся где-нибудь в лесу.
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