In the following you find typical and general suggestions as well as various process instructions for the use of our Trupocor dyes. The dye can be added directly to the substance. Where a good mixing is ensured, the powder brands can also be added directly. Despite the very good substantivity of the Trupocor dyes, it is sometimes problematic for very dark tones to achieve a satisfactory bleeding fastness. Here, the use of cationic fixatives eg. If dye combinations e.
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Chemical building blocks and useful productsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Making Natural Dye Using Vegetables - GRATEFUL
Dye , substance used to impart colour to textiles , paper , leather , and other materials such that the colouring is not readily altered by washing, heat, light , or other factors to which the material is likely to be exposed. Dyes differ from pigments , which are finely ground solids dispersed in a liquid, such as paint or ink, or blended with other materials.
Most dyes are organic compounds i. Pigments generally give brighter colours and may be dyes that are insoluble in the medium employed. Colour has always fascinated humankind, for both aesthetic and social reasons. Throughout history dyes and pigments have been major articles of commerce. Manufacture of virtually all commercial products involves colour at some stage, and today some 9, colorants with more than 50, trade names are used.
The large number is a consequence of the range of tints and hues desired, the chemical nature of the materials to be coloured, and the fact that colour is directly related to the molecular structure of the dye.
Until the s virtually all dyes were obtained from natural sources, most commonly from vegetables , such as plants , trees , and lichens , with a few from insects.
Solid evidence that dyeing methods are more than 4, years old has been provided by dyed fabrics found in Egyptian tombs. Ancient hieroglyphs describe extraction and application of natural dyes. Countless attempts have been made to extract dyes from brightly coloured plants and flowers; yet only a dozen or so natural dyes found widespread use. Undoubtedly most attempts failed because most natural dyes are not highly stable and occur as components of complex mixtures, the successful separation of which would be unlikely by the crude methods employed in ancient times.
Nevertheless, studies of these dyes in the s provided a base for development of synthetic dyes, which dominated the market by Two natural dyes, alizarin and indigo , have major significance.
Alizarin is a red dye extracted from the roots of the madder plant , Rubia tinctorium. Two other red dyes were obtained from scale insects. These include kermes , obtained from Coccus ilicis or Kermes ilicis , which infects the Kermes oak, and cochineal , obtained from Dactylopius coccus , which lives on prickly pear cactus in Mexico. One kilogram 2. The principal coloured components in these dyes are kermesic and carminic acids, respectively, whose similarity was established by In their natural state many colorants are rendered water-soluble through the presence of sugar residues.
These sugars, however, are often lost during dye isolation procedures. Probably the oldest known dye is the blue dye indigo, obtained in Europe from the leaves of the dyerswoad herb, Isatis tinctoria , and in Asia from the indigo plant, Indigofera tinctoria. Even by modern standards, both alizarin and indigo have very good dyeing properties, and indigo remains a favoured dye for denim, although synthetic indigo has replaced the natural material.
With a process developed by the Phoenicians, a derivative of indigo, Tyrian purple , was extracted in very small amounts from the glands of a snail, Murex brandaris , indigenous to the Mediterranean Sea. Experiments in yielded 1. Historically, this dye was also called royal purple because kings, emperors, and high priests had the exclusive right to wear garments dyed with it, as is well documented in the Hebrew Bible and illustrated for Roman emperors on mosaics in Ravenna, Italy.
By the s, with the decline of the Eastern Roman Empire , the Mediterranean purple industry died out. Natural yellow dyes include louting, from the leaves of weld, Reseda luteola , and quercetin, from the bark of the North American oak tree, Quercus tinctoria. These are in the flavonoid family, a group of compounds occurring almost exclusively in higher plants and producing the colours of many flowers.
In fact, these compounds can produce all the colours of the rainbow except green. Luteolin, a yellow crystalline pigment , was used with indigo to produce Lincoln green, the colour associated with Robin Hood and his merry men. Another group of compounds, the carotenoids , present in all green plants, produce yellow to red shades. Lycopene , from which all carotenoids are derived, produces the red colour of tomatoes.
An ancient natural yellow dye, crocetin, was obtained from the stigmas of Crocus sativus ; this dye is undoubtedly derived from lycopene in the plant. Few of the flavonoid and carotenoid colorants would have survived ancient extraction processes. Logwood is the only natural dye used today. Heartwood extracts of the logwood tree, Haematoxylon campechianum , yield hematoxylin, which oxidizes to hematein during isolation.
The latter is red but in combination with chromium gives shades of charcoal, gray, and black; it is used mainly to dye silk and leather. Highly skilled craftsmen with closely guarded secret formulas rendered dyeing a well-protected trade.
The formation of different colours by mixing red, blue, and yellow dyes was well known in ancient times, as was the use of metal salts to aid the retention of dyes on the desired material and to vary the resultant colours.
These are adsorbed on the fibre and react with the dye to produce a less soluble form that is held to the fabric. No doubt the secret processes included other ingredients to improve the final results. Mordants also were used to vary the colours produced from a single dye. For example, treatment with aluminum hydroxide, Al OH 3 , before dyeing with alizarin produces Turkey red, the traditional red of British and French army uniforms. Alizarin gives violet colours with magnesium mordants, purple-red with calcium mordants, blue with barium mordants, and black-violet with ferrous salts.
Around , chromium salts, used as mordants, were found to provide superior dye retention and, in time, largely displaced the others; chromium mordants are still widely used for wool and, to some extent, for silk and nylon. Until the dye industry utilized natural dyes almost exclusively; however, by nearly 90 percent of industrial dyes were synthetic.
Several factors contributed to the commercial decline of natural dyes. By the Industrial Revolution in Europe led to a burgeoning textile industry, which created increased demand for readily available, inexpensive, and easily applied dyes and revealed the important economic limitations of natural dyes.
Since most dyes were imported from distant sources, transportation delays were likely to slow the production of dyed materials. In addition, inefficient processes were often required for optimum results; for example, Turkey red dyeing could involve more than 20 steps to produce the desired bright, fast colour.
Advances in organic chemistry , both practical and theoretical, spurred by studies of the many new compounds found in coal tar , increased interest in finding ways to utilize this by-product of coke production.
The dye industry played a major role in the development of structural organic chemistry, which in turn provided a sound scientific foundation for the dye industry. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.
Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction History of dyes Natural dyes Mordants Decline of natural dyes Synthetic dyes Dye structure and colour General features of dyes and dyeing Fibre structure Fibre porosity Dye retention Dyeing techniques Direct dyeing Disperse dyeing Vat dyeing Azo dyeing techniques Reactive dyeing Classifications of dyes Standardization tests and identification of dyes Development of synthetic dyes Triphenylmethane dyes Anthraquinone dyes Xanthene and related dyes Azo dyes Reactive dyes Phthalocyanine compounds Quinacridone compounds Fluorescent brighteners Food dyes Dye-industry research.
Dye Written By: J. Stothers Edward Noah Abrahart. See Article History. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Load Next Page. More About. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Provide Feedback. Manufacturer of dyes for leather, paper, plastic and textile industries. Types of dyes include acid, basic, direct, disperse, solvent, mordant, FD and C, sulphur and vat dyes. Dies are available in various colors including black, blue, brown, green and orange. Solvent-based dyes.
Dye Application, Manufacture of Dye Intermediates and Dyes
We all agree that Colour is the first feature you notice about any product, before even its quality and durability is known by us. Sudeep Industries is a world-class Reactive Dyes manufacturer and exporter. Considered by many as the most established Reactive Dyes manufacturer in India, we have made a commitment to product quality, Industrial safety and Technical strength. This reflects in our manufacturing and quality assurance processes.
Chemicals & Dyes Used in the Textile Industry
Light is comprised, in part, of various wavelengths of radiant energy. The human eye, with its marvelous physiology of cones, interprets the wavelengths from to nanometers a nanometer being 1 x 10 -9 meter , transforming this input into the realization of color. Thus within this narrow portion of the total radiant energy of light lie all the colors that are perceived. The shorter wavelengths of light give violet and blue, the midrange gives greens and yellows, and the longer waves give orange and red. Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Dye , substance used to impart colour to textiles , paper , leather , and other materials such that the colouring is not readily altered by washing, heat, light , or other factors to which the material is likely to be exposed. Dyes differ from pigments , which are finely ground solids dispersed in a liquid, such as paint or ink, or blended with other materials. Most dyes are organic compounds i. Pigments generally give brighter colours and may be dyes that are insoluble in the medium employed. Colour has always fascinated humankind, for both aesthetic and social reasons. Throughout history dyes and pigments have been major articles of commerce. Manufacture of virtually all commercial products involves colour at some stage, and today some 9, colorants with more than 50, trade names are used. The large number is a consequence of the range of tints and hues desired, the chemical nature of the materials to be coloured, and the fact that colour is directly related to the molecular structure of the dye.
Textile Dyes Suppliers
A dye is a coloured substance that chemically bonds to the substrate to which it is being applied. This distinguishes dyes from pigments which do not chemically bind to the material they colour. The dye is generally applied in an aqueous solution , and may require a mordant to improve the fastness of the dye on the fiber.
As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 79, lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Plus, get practice tests, quizzes, and personalized coaching to help you succeed. Already registered? Log in here for access. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. Elisha is a writer, editor, and aspiring novelist. Did you know that there are some manufacturers making garments out of the skin that forms on top of wine vats? This fermented skin is naturally dyed from the color of the grapes used and always carries around the smell of fermented wine.
Paper Dyes Suppliers
Pigment Powder is coloured powder that is used to produce a full range of colours. It is an inert colorant. Direct dyes are another class of dyes, one of the two types of dyes that are mixed in 'all purpose'. We are manufacturers and exporters of Dyestuff and intermediates since and have 02 plants with combined installed capacity of MT. We wish and hope to build a strong cooperation with your esteemed company for a mutually beneficial association. We request you to kindly share your requirements so that we can submit our price quotations and samples for your evaluation. More Info.
Established in as a family owned business for trade and export of jute and textiles in Calcutta now Kolkata. A township was developed around the mill which comprised of schools, hospitals, residences and a temple. In , a direct relationship with Hoechst AG was established for sale of Dye Intermediates which fuelled growth and development.
Сделал он это как раз вовремя - убийца промчался мимо в ту же секунду. Он так торопился, что не заметил побелевших костяшек пальцев, вцепившихся в оконный выступ. Свисая из окна, Беккер благодарил Бога за ежедневные занятия теннисом и двадцатиминутные упражнения на аппарате Наутилус, подготовившие его мускулатуру к запредельным нагрузкам.
Увы, теперь, несмотря на силу рук, он не мог подтянуться, чтобы влезть обратно.
Чатрукьян знал: как только Джабба узнает, что Стратмор обошел фильтры, разразится скандал. Какая разница? - подумал. - Я должен выполнять свои обязанности.