Note: No two locations shall be identical in respect of layout, surroundings, products, storage quantities, meteorological data etc. Emergencies can be categorized into three broad levels on the basis of seriousness and response requirements, namely These Codes of Practices shall be implemented for the areas covered under Regulation 3 as per the implementation period mentioned in Schedule-I. The second step of the ERDMP process is to determine the risk of an incident associated with each hazard. The basic procedure in a risk analysis shall be as follows:.
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A factory, manufacturing plant or a production plant is an industrial site, usually consisting of buildings and machinery, or more commonly a complex having several buildings, where workers manufacture goods or operate machines processing one product into another. Factories arose with the introduction of machinery during the Industrial Revolution when the capital and space requirements became too great for cottage industry or workshops. Early factories that contained small amounts of machinery, such as one or two spinning mules , and fewer than a dozen workers have been called "glorified workshops".
Most modern factories have large warehouses or warehouse -like facilities that contain heavy equipment used for assembly line production.
Large factories tend to be located with access to multiple modes of transportation, with some having rail, highway and water loading and unloading facilities. In some countries like Australia, it is common to call a factory building a " Shed  ". Factories may either make discrete products or some type of material continuously produced such as chemicals , pulp and paper , or refined oil products. Factories manufacturing chemicals are often called plants and may have most of their equipment — tanks, pressure vessels , chemical reactors , pumps and piping — outdoors and operated from control rooms.
Oil refineries have most of their equipment outdoors. Discrete products may be final consumer goods, or parts and sub-assemblies which are made into final products elsewhere. Factories may be supplied parts from elsewhere or make them from raw materials. Continuous production industries typically use heat or electricity to transform streams of raw materials into finished products.
The term mill originally referred to the milling of grain, which usually used natural resources such as water or wind power until those were displaced by steam power in the 19th century. Because many processes like spinning and weaving, iron rolling, and paper manufacturing were originally powered by water, the term survives as in steel mill , paper mill , etc.
Max Weber considered production during ancient times as never warranting classification as factories, with methods of production and the contemporary economic situation incomparable to modern or even pre-modern developments of industry.
In ancient times, the earliest production limited to the household, developed into a separate endeavour independent to the place of inhabitation with production at that time only beginning to be characteristic of industry, termed as "unfree shop industry", a situation caused especially under the reign of the Egyptian pharaoh, with slave employment and no differentiation of skills within the slave group comparable to modern definitions as division of labour.
According to translations of Demosthenes and Herodotus, Naucratis was a, or the only, factory in the entirety of ancient Egypt. The first machine is stated by one source to have been traps used to assist with the capturing of animals, corresponding to the machine as a mechanism operating independently or with very little force by interaction from a human, with a capacity for use repeatedly with operation exactly the same on every occasion of functioning.
The Iron Age began approximately — BC. The watermill was first made in the Persian Empire some time before BC. The earliest proper factory milling installations appeared in the Islamic world from the 8th century onwards. A 10th-century grain-processing factory in the Egyptian town of Bilbays , for example, produced an estimated tons of grain and flour per day. The Venice Arsenal also provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word. Founded in in Venice , Republic of Venice , several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution , it mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16, people. One of the earliest factories was John Lombe 's water-powered silk mill at Derby , operational by By , an integrated brass mill was working at Warmley near Bristol. Raw material went in at one end, was smelted into brass and was turned into pans, pins, wire, and other goods.
Housing was provided for workers on site. Josiah Wedgwood in Staffordshire and Matthew Boulton at his Soho Manufactory were other prominent early industrialists, who employed the factory system. The factory system began widespread use somewhat later when cotton spinning was mechanized.
Richard Arkwright is the person credited with inventing the prototype of the modern factory. After he patented his water frame in , he established Cromford Mill , in Derbyshire , England, significantly expanding the village of Cromford to accommodate the migrant workers new to the area. The factory system was a new way of organizing workforce made necessary by the development of machines which were too large to house in a worker's cottage.
Working hours were as long as they had been for the farmer, that is, from dawn to dusk, six days per week. Overall, this practice essentially reduced skilled and unskilled workers to replaceable commodities. Arkwright's factory was the first successful cotton spinning factory in the world; it showed unequivocally the way ahead for industry and was widely copied. Between and mechanized factories supplanted traditional artisan shops as the predominant form of manufacturing institution, because the larger-scale factories enjoyed a significant technological and supervision advantage over the small artisan shops.
Later generations of factories included mechanized shoe production and manufacturing of machinery, including machine tools. Factories that supplied the railroad industry included rolling mills, foundries and locomotive works. Agricultural-equipment factories produced cast-steel plows and reapers. Bicycles were mass-produced beginning in the s. The Nasmyth, Gaskell and Company's Bridgewater Foundry , which began operation in , was one of the earliest factories to use modern materials handling such as cranes and rail tracks through the buildings for handling heavy items.
Large scale electrification of factories began around after the development of the AC motor which was able to run at constant speed depending on the number of poles and the current electrical frequency. Eliminating line shafts freed factories of layout constraints and allowed factory layout to be more efficient.
Electrification enabled sequential automation using relay logic. Henry Ford further revolutionized the factory concept in the early 20th century, with the innovation of the mass production.
Highly specialized laborers situated alongside a series of rolling ramps would build up a product such as in Ford's case an automobile. This concept dramatically decreased production costs for virtually all manufactured goods and brought about the age of consumerism.
In the mid - to late 20th century, industrialized countries introduced next-generation factories with two improvements:. Some speculation  as to the future of the factory includes scenarios with rapid prototyping , nanotechnology , and orbital zero- gravity facilities .
Before the advent of mass transportation , factories' needs for ever-greater concentrations of laborers meant that they typically grew up in an urban setting or fostered their own urbanization. Industrial slums developed, and reinforced their own development through the interactions between factories, as when one factory's output or waste-product became the raw materials of another factory preferably nearby. The exception proved the rule: even greenfield factory sites such as Bournville , founded in a rural setting, developed its own housing and profited from convenient communications systems.
Regulation curbed some of the worst excesses of industrialization 's factory-based society, a series of Factory Acts leading the way in Britain. Trams , automobiles and town planning encouraged the separate development of industrial suburbs and residential suburbs, with laborers commuting between them.
Though factories dominated the Industrial Era, the growth in the service sector eventually began to dethrone them: [ verification needed ] the focus of labor in general shifted to central-city office towers or to semi-rural campus-style establishments, and many factories stood deserted in local rust belts.
The next blow to the traditional factories came from globalization. Manufacturing processes or their logical successors, assembly plants in the late 20th century re-focussed in many instances on Special Economic Zones in developing countries or on maquiladoras just across the national boundaries of industrialized states. Further re-location to the least industrialized nations appears possible as the benefits of out-sourcing and the lessons of flexible location apply in the future.
Much of management theory developed in response to the need to control factory processes. A shadow factory is a term given to dispersed manufacturing sites in times of war to reduce the risk of disruption due to enemy air-raids and often with the dual purpose of increasing manufacturing capacity.
Production of the Supermarine Spitfire at its parent company's base at Woolston, Southampton was vulnerable to enemy attack as a high-profile target and was well within range of Luftwaffe bombers. Indeed, on 26 September this facility was completely destroyed by an enemy bombing raid. Supermarine had already established a plant at Castle Bromwich ; this action prompted them to further disperse Spitfire production around the country with many premises being requisitioned by the British Government.
Connected to the Spitfire was production of its equally important Rolls-Royce Merlin engine, Rolls-Royce 's main aero engine facility was located at Derby , the need for increased output was met by building new factories in Crewe and Glasgow and using a purpose-built factory of Ford of Britain in Trafford Park Manchester. Coldharbour Mill textile factory, built in Adolph von Menzel : Moderne Cyklopen. Workers in the fuse factory, Woolwich Arsenal late s.
Hyundai 's Assembly line about From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about places of manufacture. For other uses, see Factory disambiguation. Main article: Factory system. See also: Industrial Revolution. Main article: Assembly line. Main article: British shadow factories. Zeche Ewald in Herten , exterior Zeche Ewald in Herten , interior Business and economics portal. Asset Building. The New York Times.
Retrieved 14 October Understanding the role of production and craft specialization in ancient socio-economic systems: toward the integration of spatial analysis, 3D modeling and virtual reality in archaeology MA. University of California San Diego. Psychology Press. PHI Learning Pvt. Review of Radical Political Economics. Retrieved 2 February Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. University of Toronto Press.
The Henry Ford. October Government Office for Science UK. Smithsonian Magazine. Bournville Village Trust. Aspects of workplaces. Aspects of corporations Aspects of jobs Aspects of occupations Aspects of organizations Employment. Categories : Manufacturing plants Industrial buildings Manufacturing buildings and structures Industrial Revolution.
Department of Labor Robert B. This informational booklet provides a generic, non-exhaustive overview of OSHA standards-related topics. This publication does not itself alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are set forth in OSHA standards themselves and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Moreover, because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements, the reader should consult current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and and Health Review Commission and the courts.
Table of Contents
The Machine Guard Program is designed to protect Employees from hazards of moving machinery. All hazardous areas of a machine shall be guarded to prevent accidental "caught in" situations. It is crucial to understand why machine and equipment safe guards are to be used on machines. An operator or maintenance worker must be informed as to the location of the safe guards on the machines, and should also be provided information on why safe guards protect them and what hazards they protect them from. An operator or maintenance worker also should be trained on how to remove machine and equipment safe guards from the machines and also to understand in what circumstances guards can be removed. Workers need to be trained in procedures to follow if they notice guards are damaged, missing or inadequate. An operator or maintenance worker should be provided with a dress code.
General Profile David Franson. Tea Industry Lou Piombino. Distilled Spirits Industry R. Aldi and Rita Seguin.
- Вы оба думаете, что в нашем компьютере вирус. Бринкерхофф растерянно заморгал. - Да, сэр, - сказала Мидж. - Потому что Стратмор обошел систему Сквозь строй? - Фонтейн опустил глаза на компьютерную распечатку. - Да, - сказала. - Кроме того, ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже больше двадцати часов не может справиться с каким-то файлом.
Фонтейн наморщил лоб. - Это по вашим данным. Мидж хотела возразить, но прикусила язык.
- И сразу же вернусь. Сьюзан безучастно смотрела, как он направился в шифровалку. Это был уже не тот раздавленный отчаянием человек, каким она видела его десять минут .
Северная Дакота, - вслух произнесла она, пытаясь своим умом криптографа проникнуть в скрытый смысл этого имени. - Что говорится в его посланиях на имя Танкадо.
Надеюсь, не забыл. - Ну и что мне, прожевать все эти цифры. Она поправила прическу. - Ты же всегда стремился к большей ответственности. Вот. Он печально на нее посмотрел. - Мидж… у меня нет никакой жизни. Она постучала пальцем по кипе документов: - Вот твоя жизнь, Чед Бринкерхофф. - Но, посмотрев на него, смягчилась.
Джабба повернулся к монитору и вскинул руки. - Почему среди нас нет ни одного ядерного физика. Сьюзан, глядя на мультимедийный клип, понимала, что все кончено. Она следила за смертью Танкадо - в который уже.
Он хотел говорить, но слова застревали у него в горле.
Через некоторое время им с огромным трудом удалось расширить щель до одного фута. - Не отпускай, - сказал Стратмор, стараясь изо всех сил. - Еще чуточку. Сьюзан удалось протиснуть в щель плечо. Теперь ей стало удобнее толкать.
Элементарная ошибка, подумала Сьюзан, Стратмор, по-видимому, поменял местами поля информации, и Следопыт искал учетные данные совсем не того пользователя. Она завершила ввод данных и запустила Следопыта. Затем щелкнула по кнопке возврат. Компьютер однократно пискнул.
У ее ног лежало тело Хейла. Прошло еще несколько минут. Она пыталась не думать о Дэвиде, но безуспешно.
- Ах да… Я, кажется, что-то такое читала. - Не очень правдоподобное заявление. - Согласна, - сказала Сьюзан, удивившись, почему вдруг Хейл заговорил об. - Я в это не верю.
Мы позвонили! - не сдавалась Мидж. - Он сказал, что у них все в порядке.