Plant Factory: An Indoor Vertical Farming System for Efficient Quality Food Production provides information on a field that is helping to offset the threats that unusual weather and shortages of land and natural resources bring to the food supply. As alternative options are needed to ensure adequate and efficient production of food, this book represents the only available resource to take a practical approach to the planning, design, and implementation of plant factory PF practices to yield food crops. The PF systems described in this book are based on a plant production system with artificial electric lights and include case studies providing lessons learned and best practices from both industrial and crop specific programs. With insights into the economics as well as the science of PF programs, this book is ideal for those in academic as well as industrial settings. A recommendable book for people who want to start growing under LED lamps. With over original papers, review papers, other papers, books or book chapters, and 7 translations of books from English to Japanese, 20 active patents with 50 approved in total, Toyoki Kozai is an award winning scientist who has made significant contributions to the advancement of technology and agriculture, particularly plant factory science.
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Perfumery School in GrasseVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: FAVORITE MIMOSA PERFUMES - What Is Mimosa In Fragrances? Discussion With Dalya
Nicosia Edited by. Titolo diapositiva Pyrgos perfumery. Titolo diapositiva Pottery and stone tools. Titolo diapositiva Juglet in the maceration pit. Titolo diapositiva Perfume bottles. Titolo diapositiva Funnels. Titolo diapositiva Zoomorphic askoi. Titolo diapositiva Perfume bottle. Titolo diapositiva Amphoras. Titolo diapositiva Amphora with coroplastic handles. Titolo diapositiva Jug with snakes. Titolo diapositiva Alembic. About perfumes research.
The contribution that perfumes have given to the civilizations of the past and the present is unparalleled in the material universe. The emotional, spiritual, and cultural support took extraordinary proportions, though, just a few have spoken about it. At the dawn of the perfume, it is its sacred messenger symbolism, expressed in the identity of an invisible substance regarded as among the most secret and most fascinating gift of nature, which spreads unrestrainable and remains suspended in the air to support human prayer to God.
Countless testimonials illustrate how scents have influenced every human experience through the millennia telling the intriguing history of perfumes. The primordial sacredness of perfume gave healing powers, charisma, and magic to the different aromatic essences so much so that their use and mixture are not only a part of the history of perfume and cosmetics, but also the art of medical science.
The finding at Pyrgos of an Early Middle Bronze age installation to produce essential oils has been an important occasion for Istituto per le Tecnologie Applicate ai Beni Culturali ITABC-CNR: Sciences for knowledge, conservation and use of cultural heritage to collaborate with the Department of Antiquities of Cyprus in making known, outside the academic environment, an important aspect of Cypriot culture.
The multidisciplinary approach that has characterized the research is testimony to the spirit of cooperation that has fuelled the research itself, to reconstruct some elements of the ancient civilization of Cyprus, bringing out, strengthening, and consolidating the continuity of one of the oldest Cypriot traditions, without betraying its origins.
That approach was fundamental to create strong synergies between the scientific and the humanistic heritage, together with the intent of preserving and transmitting part of a cultural identity that we can consider Mediterranean. Excavation of the sector connected to the processing of the fragrances began in and ended in The chemical analyses were able to identify some of the fragrances that were produced, while the study of pollens, seeds and botanical charred parts recognized more.
They revealed that the plants processed were from the Cyprus flora and within the limits of the samples examined, there were no foreign ingredients. In , the Centre for Experimental Archaeology "Antiquitates" of Civitella Cesi, Blera VT , well-known in the academic world and accredited by MIBACT, ran tests of experimental archaeology to verify the interpretation of the data and the efficiency of the ancient technologies that coincided with those described by Theophrastus, many centuries later.
First, "Antiquitates" made replicas of vases, which they used for the maceration and distillation of the herbs including Rosemary, Lavender, Marjoram and Myrtle. Second, they added to each one olive oil or almond oil, to blend the fragrances according to the recipes handed down by Theophrastus, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscurides. After the first two exhibitions organized by the Department of the Antiquities in Cyprus, the findings of the perfumery of Pyrgos were also involved more exhibitions and events organized abroad.
The most important, visited by over half a million of people, was held in Rome at the "Musei Capitolini" from 14 March to 15 September Following this request, the furnishings of the "Capitolini Museum" exhibition were stored in the warehouses of the Italian Ministry for Foreign Affair, waiting the performing of the procedures to host the exhibition in Florence.
For the exhibition at the Museum of the Officina Profumo of Santa Maria Novella in , it used the same furniture and reprinted the volume "I profumi di Afrodite e il segreto dell'olio", Gangemi under the title "Mavroraki Il Profumo di Afrodite", Gangemi ", which was available in the bookshop of the Museum along with a small bottle, containing a few ml of an oil perfume Mavrorachi, created in limited numbered edition for the occasion.
As expressly stated in the product information sheet, the perfume elaborated by the botanists of Santa Maria Novella included only a few fragrances among those identified at Pyrgos. After the diffusion to Cypriot, Italian and International media of the news about the discovery of the Pyrgos perfumery, many researchers and professional perfumers have been interested in the botanical species recognised at Pyrgos.
Most of them tried to use and complete the fragmentary sequence coming from the Archaeometry research, giving personal interpretation, to find the original recipe of the ancient perfume Kypros, one of the most famous fragrances mentioned by Theophrastus BC , Pliny the Elder AD and Pedanius Dioscurides AD. As known, the fragrance is in the history of perfumes as the longest that has given its name to one of seven olfactory families in which are divided all the perfumes of the world.
The only which survived with its name through 20 centuries of commercial traffics. Today, the Encyclopaedia of the Perfumes mentions thousands of perfumes belonging to the family Chypre officially produced since the beginning of XIX century, and hundreds named Chypre or Kypre.
It is not surprising then that most perfumes of Cyprus produced by the flora of the island have been in various ways attributed to the goddess of love that the Greeks in the VI century BC called Aphrodite. So too is there no coincidence that the discovery of the oldest perfume shop was made in Cyprus whilst investigating a second millennium BC site. After the discovery in , many investigations have been carried out on archaeological samples and several experimental tests enabled to reproduce fragrances, with the methods of the Early-Middle Bronze Age.
Availability of ceramic replicas reproduced without a lathe, using local clay, and baked in a ground kiln , basalt tools and essential oils extracted from the endemic plants in Troodos, it gave the possibility to organize interactive olfactory and tactile exhibitions, accessible even to blind people extending a wide audience the chance to know aspects of Cyprus Bronze Age civilization.
The investigative path has been diverse, through the study of the primary components, such as olive oil and wine, to advance in the complex world of Palaeobotany. Far from being complete, the multidisciplinary research on the perfumery of Pyrgos is based on eight fields of study:.
The structures emerged to belong to laboratories and workshops that have made quality products, such as perfumes, cosmetics, drugs, bronzes, textiles, and wine. Many of these activities have been benefited from the olive oil produced in the large mill and distributed to the various workshops in large storage jars. Cistus Laudaniferus pink and white is mainly based on palynological investigations carried out on samples from different excavated units.
With attention to the materials of the perfume factory that returned many botanic remains. Entire stratigraphic sections were analysed from the point of view of mineral deposits, for reconstruction of climate changes on the island since the second millennium BC. The experimentation was mainly concentrated on the multiple use of olive oil. The most important sectors are those uses in metallurgy as fuel, in the weaving for the lubrication of the fibres, for ceramic mixtures and in the production of perfumes, cosmetics and medicines.
With regards to scents there has been only one attempt to remake oil fragrances using the ancient techniques of Pyrgos. In , Angelo Bartoli Figs. As mentioned above, more fragrances made with the traditional ingredients of the ancient Kypros recipe from Pliny and Dioscurides have been created for different exhibitions on the discovery of Pyrgos' perfumery:.
In addition to the above-mentioned creations, in and the children of the school of Pyrgos remade some natural fragrances following a short didactic course organized by the Italian Archaeological Mission Fig. The experiment was organized with the aim of preserving cultural memory. A report and the results were presented as a paper in the frame of the first and second edition of the Euro Mediterranean International Conference on Digital Heritage, organized by the Cyprus University of Technology of Limassol.
The family Chypre oak moss, rock rose labdanum, patchouli, bergamot, etc. The investigation also includes some comparisons with testimonies from the great civilizations surrounding Cyprus, most notably Egypt and Mesopotamia, with attention to the perfume factories, dating to the Hellenistic and Roman period.
The aim is to outline the common characteristics that identify a laboratory to produce perfumes in an archaeological context, and to find new interpretations of dubious archaeological evidence. Our study starts from ceramic equipment used to distil also represented in the miniatures, drawings and paintings depicting alchemical laboratories , looking for evidence about the cultural continuity that led to the use of clay still until modern times.
These stills are produced in Italy by certain industries of ceramics and the comparison with the examples of Pyrgos and Paphos are amazing, if you calculate an interval of years. Since the resin is dissolved in fat and in wine, the various attempts to extract fragrances have led to the composition of the first ointments.
Indeed, in Egypt during the fourth millennium BC, the first seven sacred ointments are all based on resins dissolved in scented Moringa oil. The same resins were already used during religious rituals, and so it is assumed that their first use was linked to religion. Archaeological findings also show that the resins have been used for different purposes: as a sealant to secure tool handles, glue, waterproofing, adhesives, wound healing, and skin disinfectant.
Their texture and aroma, along with the fact that ooze from the wounds of tree bark of plants, were considered like human blood, and regarded as expression of lifeblood in which essence of life flows. As a result, the observation that the fragrance of resin is unleashed into the air when burns, gives this substance a metaphysical role, undoubtedly connected to the older concept of supreme entity, which grants all the life on earth.
It is a primitive association that justifies the ubiquitous resins in religious ceremonies and rites of passage.
The resins of conifers and terebinth, have played a decisive role in social evolution in Cyprus along with other fragrances of the Mediterranean flora. If we try to draw a similarity with Egypt, the country that more than any other has made use of scents for every occasion of life and death, there are huge differences not only in taste, but also especially in the cultural choices. In Egypt, the scent was something sacred and divine, the private property of the Pharaoh and the priests, who completely controlled its production and use.
It was so important that its administration was the expression and symbol of power itself. While in Cyprus, everyone produced and used perfumes, especially at the domestic level. Not only the statue of Aphrodite, but also all the girls, who, according to the sacred ritual, went for initiation in the temple, were anointed and perfumed, regardless of their social status. In all the tombs of the island, of any historical period, were found perfume bottles and jars of ointments, cosmetics or like those found in Pharaoh Tombs.
We know that trade in perfumes developed in the Bronze Age particularly in the second half of the second millennium BC as shown by findings in Egypt and Cyprus. Because of the Millenary tradition, after the collapse of the Roman Empire, the continuity and reputation of Cypriot perfumes survived in family entourage that continued to produce fragrances without any control by official authorities.
Available scents on the Mediterranean market has kept alive the fame of Cyprus, directing probably its taste toward more obtainable than mostly used Mediterranean fragrances. The continuity of production of perfumes through the centuries in Cyprus seems to be related to special factors and reasons that favoured the choice of specific perfumes in Europe.
After the cultural exchanges that occurred during the Crusades, European tastes shifted progressively from plants typical of the Middle East and Egypt, towards the scents of the Mediterranean scrub, blended with floral essences, whose production involved many European regions like France with jasmine and Bulgaria with rose.
It is possible that this preference was influenced by a sort of rejection of the Arab world, responsible for invasions, battles, and hateful bloody domains. So, the taste of Europeans was directed towards Mediterranean nuances, causing disuse of hot and aggressive oriental perfumes, which are still used in the production of a type of perfume intended principally for the eastern market, and not European. Returning to Cyprus, the fragrances that continued to be exported by merchants in the form of scented talc, oil, tissues, and impregnated carbons were Pine resin, resin of Laudaniferus Cistus Laubdanum , Styrax, root of Iris, Rose, Oregano and Marjoram, root of the chain Cypress, Neroli i.
Coriander instead became the most famous spices of the island, and it was used not only in the manufacture of perfumes, but also in pharmaceuticals and in cosmetics. In that year, the great perfumer, in dividing the nuances of the ten olfactory families, which represent the standard on which it is possible to classify all the perfumes of the world, launched on the European market "Chypre de Coty", the first perfume produced at an industrial level.
However, the perfume Chypre already existed, as demonstrated by some bottles of Nimes dating back to Eugene Rimmel invented a Chypre for Catherine of Russia in , and Malhame Bichara in sold a precious perfume named "Chypre de Limassol," in a very attractive Baccarat crystal bottle, with the top in the form of a Pharaoh Head. In the series of perfumes that Coty invented in honour of the island of Cyprus, we cannot, however, forget "Origane" from the scent of essential oils of oregano and marjoram, which brings us back to the myth of Amaracus and production of the famous Cypriot perfume Amarichinum, so beloved in the Egyptian world.
Maybe today it survives as "Amarige de Givenchy". Belgiorno edited by de Strobel publisher Nicosia Belgiorno Edited by de Strobel publisher Nicosia Link to Perfumery Theme Park Cyprus web site.
Neophytes, passionate, amateur or professional, we offer you an initiatory journey to the heart of the French perfume industry. For one who wants to find a place in the perfumery world, you can trust us to build your knowledge and skills for becoming the future of the industry. Limited to 12 students. We propose specifics courses by levels which can fit with each expectation for both professionals and enthusiasts. Classes designed for those who want to discover the amazing world of perfumery. Different topics are proposed: fragrances, natural extracts, cosmetics, taste and smell….
Nicosia Edited by. Titolo diapositiva Pyrgos perfumery. Titolo diapositiva Pottery and stone tools. Titolo diapositiva Juglet in the maceration pit. Titolo diapositiva Perfume bottles. Titolo diapositiva Funnels.
From flower to fragrance: the craftsmanship of a Chanel perfume
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Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin , which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare , meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia , Egypt , the Indus Valley Civilization and maybe Ancient China. It was further refined by the Romans and the Arabs. The world's first-recorded chemist is considered a woman named Tapputi , a perfume maker mentioned in a cuneiform tablet from the 2nd millennium BC in Mesopotamia. In ,  archaeologists uncovered what are believed [ by whom? The perfumes date back more than 4, years. In ancient times people used herbs and spices , such as almond , coriander , myrtle , conifer resin , and bergamot , as well as flowers.
Fragrance (Perfume) in Cosmetics
DeBaggio wrote extensively for leading gardening and herb magazines, including The Herb Companion until diagnosed with Alzheimer's Disease in In , DeBaggio passed his legacy on to his son, Francesco and wrote two books on his experiences with the early stages of his disease. He died in
Fragrances create important benefits that are ubiquitous, tangible, and valued. They solve important functional problems and they satisfy valued emotional needs. Fragrances can communicate complex ideas — creating mood, signalling cleanliness, freshness, or softness, alleviating stress, creating well-being, and triggering allure and attraction. There are hundreds of fragrances created every year, in countries all over the world. Numerous studies confirm that fragrances enhance well being and have a positive impact on the psyche. Often a particular fragrance becomes strongly associated with product identity and acceptability. Ancient texts and archaeological excavations show the use of perfumes in some of the earliest human civilizations. Modern perfumery began in the late 19th century with the commercial synthesis of aroma compounds such as vanillin or coumarin, which allowed for the composition of perfumes with smells previously unattainable solely from natural aromatics alone. The word perfume derives from the Latin perfumare , meaning "to smoke through". Perfumery, as the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians.
Production of perfumes. Laboratory.
In the Ancient Egypt were used sophisticated perfumes for personal care and for religious and funeral rituals. The Ancient Egyptians loved beautiful fragrances. They associated them with the gods and recognised their positive effect on health and well being. Perfumes were generally applied as oil-based salves, and there are numerous recipes and depictions of the preparation of perfume in temples all over Egypt. Three women in a banquet, with cones of perfume on her wigs. Tomb of Nakht, Tebas. Women are very attractive. His large almond-shaped eyes front highlight your beauty.
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Founders Ezra Wood and Alia Raza describe themselves as fragrance nerds. The collection draws on nature and culture, melding the rich source that is history and art with the wealth of the plant world. The five scents present a surprising individuality, subtlety and savvy sophistication.
It is also the Poland first company that launched on the market aromatherapeutic essential oils and cosmetic preparations based on aromatherapy principles. It was originally the initiative of two Polish scientists, Prof. Janusz Kulesza and Prof.
Tiny metabolically engineered organisms could cheaply and sustainably produce ingredients for our natural foods, flavors and fragrances. Is that floral scented, natural shampoo from the health foods store good for the planet?
For this latter area of research, the term "Molecular Farming" was coined in reference to agricultural applications in that major crops like maize and tobacco were originally used basically for pharma applications. Once engineered, a plant is among the cheapest and easiest eukaryotic system to be bred with simple know-how, using nutrients, water and light. Molecules that are currently being produced in plants vary from industrial and pharmaceutical proteins, including medical diagnostics proteins and vaccine antigens, to nutritional supplements such as vitamins, carbohydrates and biopolymers. Convergence among disciplines as distant as plant physiology and pharmacology and, more recently, as omic sciences, bioinformatics and nanotechnology, increases the options of research on the plant cell factory.