Avoiding meat and dairy products is the single biggest way to reduce your environmental impact on the planet, according to the scientists behind the most comprehensive analysis to date of the damage farming does to the planet. Loss of wild areas to agriculture is the leading cause of the current mass extinction of wildlife. The scientists also found that even the very lowest impact meat and dairy products still cause much more environmental harm than the least sustainable vegetable and cereal growing. It assessed the full impact of these foods, from farm to fork, on land use, climate change emissions, freshwater use and water pollution eutrophication and air pollution acidification.
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- The meat and dairy industry wastes water
- Beef and Dairy Industries in “Death Spiral,” Will Collapse by 2030, Report Says
- Avoiding meat and dairy is ‘single biggest way’ to reduce your impact on Earth
- Meat & Dairy Industries Overproduce Despite Plummeting Demand
- Meat-Free Monday Campaign
- Food waste in animal feed with a focus on use for broilers
The meat and dairy industry wastes waterVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Wastewater Treatment for the Beverage industry
The range of food products presents different wastewater challenges. Examples include: fruits and vegetables for canning and preserving, fish, meat and poultry, dairy products, and fats and oils. Wastewater generated from food production and agricultural activities is a major source of environmental pollution.
It is also among the most difficult and costly waste to manage because food processing wastewater can contain large quantities of nutrients, organic carbon, nitrogenous organics, inorganics, suspended and dissolved solids, and it has high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. It must be treated to levels that will not damage receiving waters due to excessive nutrients or oxygen demand when directly discharged or will not disrupt publicly owned treatment works POTWs when discharged to sewers.
In the U. Plant-food processing wastes may be lower strength and greater volume than animal processing and animal production. The range of food and agricultural wastes present different challenges. Industry examples include: meat and poultry products, dairy products, fruits and vegetables for canning and preserving, grain products, sugar and related confectionaries, fats and oils, and beverages and brewing, among others.
Biochemical oxygen demand BOD and chemical oxygen demand COD values for many wastes are in the thousands of milligrams per liter, and some like cheese production, winery and olive milling can be in the tens of thousands for COD.
So, each waste type will have special factors to consider, and in addition to the technology performance issues, seasonality of production adds to the complexities of the treatment choices and operations in several industries. The types of treatment technologies used for food processing wastewater are not unusual among wastewater treatment options and include the typical array of biological and physical chemical treatments.
Both oxidative and anaerobic processes may be employed. They include: flotation, coagulation, sedimentation, filtration, adsorption, membranes, primary settling, secondary activated sludge, anaerobic digestion and even recovery of carbon dioxide or methane for subsequent uses.
In addition, many wastes or treated residues are amenable for land application as beneficial soil amendments or fertilizers, which can mitigate much of the wastewater discharge concerns; however, even those approaches can be problematic if excessive nutrient runoff occurs, particularly in cold weather. In-plant recycling can also be employed since water is in demand for not only processing steps, but also for cleaning equipment, facilities and floors. Detergents or other additives may be employed for those nonfood contact applications, which may improve or complicate the subsequent treatment processes.
The safety of the food product is paramount, and recycling within a process step can be allowed by law for certain food processes, such as chiller water in meat and poultry processing.
Recycling where food contact is involved is more problematic between processes because different contaminants may be contributed. Many of the aforementioned treatment processes are used in vegetable and food processing wastewater. The production process produces waste streams from washing and rinsing, sorting, in-plant fluid transport methods, peeling, pureeing and juicing, blanching, canning, drying, cooking and cleanup.
Most of the waste content is biodegradable carbohydrates, although salts may also be a contributor for some such as brining products. There are many elements of production of fish products that generate solid and liquid wastes. Harvested product may be processed on shipboard or stored by icing or freezing for transport to the processing plant. Farmed product may be handled somewhat differently from wild-caught product.
Wastes from eviscerating and butchering are collected, dried or screened and used as byproducts. The processing plant may further trim from the product and then cook, pack or freeze, generating other waste liquids and solids.
Each type of product generates different levels of BOD, COD and often substantial amounts of fats, oils and grease and protein content. Wastes from the meat and poultry industries include those generated by the animals during livestock holding as well as high-strength wastes produced during processing. Processes include: slaughtering, defeathering or hide removal, eviscerating and trimming, washing, disinfecting and cooling.
Some poultry plants may process 2 million birds per week, so they are large-scale waste generators. Nitrogenous organic proteins , fats and inorganic nitrates waste components are substantial.
The two main elements are milk bottling and milk product production of whey, butter, cheese, ice cream, yogurts, cottage cheese and other milk derivatives. The latter post-milk processing is the largest contributor to wastewater production and to the strength of the wastewater. The COD levels at those stages, especially in cheese production, can be much more than 10 times the amount in milk bottling. Nondairy ingredients such as flavors, sugars and fruits are also involved in production, and they can contribute to the waste stream.
The waste products are mainly biodegradable, so aerobic and anaerobic processes are standard. Vegetable oil and animal fat production often involves solvent extraction or compression for olive and sesame oils. The oils must have further refining processes to remove some taste, free fatty acids and other residue components from the extracted oils and fats. Substantial amounts of solid residues are also generated from the vegetable oil production.
In addition, extraction solvents must be removed. Olive oil production generates higher levels of COD and solid wastes compared to other food and agricultural wastes. Anaerobic technologies are a growing area of interest in agricultural and food processing wastewater treatment because of the opportunity to generate methane gas as a byproduct, which can be used to generate heat and electrical energy to offset facility operating costs, and it reduces the biological activity and the volume of waste and the carbon footprint.
Anaerobic processes are often relatively slow and temperature sensitive, and they require larger facilities, so the goal is to develop processes that are more rapid to optimize throughput and methane production. Anaerobic methane and energy production are also being more commonly used in municipal waste treatment plants to provide heat and electricity. The upfront investments are substantial, and they require more sophisticated operations management, but they are providing POTWs with longer-term insulation from increasing energy costs.
Food wastes are even used to supplement POTW waste to increase methane and energy production. Food and agricultural wastes are ideal for biogas production due to the relatively high total organic carbon loadings compared to many other wastes. For example, a large municipal plant in Washington, D. Also, an Oakland, California, facility, which is likely a recipient of substantial food-processing wastes, is reported to produce excess electricity that it can sell to the grid. High-rate anaerobic digesters are attracting interest because of their higher loading capacities and lower sludge production.
An important consideration is the presence of granular support media that provide an enlarged surface area, which provides enhanced contact between the active microbial species on the surface and carbonaceous material and nutrients in the wastewater. Refractory waste materials can become more biologically available and more productive by use of appropriate pretreatments.
There is also exploration of inoculating with anammox bacteria to accelerate conversion of nitrogenous materials. Discharges of food and agricultural wastes are a significant contributor to nutrient and carbonaceous and nitrogenous waste discharges.
Treatment of agricultural and food processing wastewater is complex and costly because of the contaminant loadings and the variability of the different wastes encountered in a plant. Industries including poultry and meat processing, dairy products and oil production generate high-strength wastes.
While common wastewater treatment processes are used, there are developments in anaerobic processes to produce methane gas for energy and electricity to offset process costs. In addition to reducing operating costs, they are environmentally friendly by reducing waste discharges and carbon footprints. Characteristics of Agricultural and Food Wastewater.
Climate Policy Watcher-Wastewater Treatment. Updated June 14, Chong S. The performance enhancements of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors for domestic sludge treatment — A state of the art review.
Water Research, 46, , Rajinikanth R. Water 5, , Joseph Cotruvo, Ph. Home Wastewater Wastewater treatment challenges in food processing and agriculture The range of food products presents different wastewater challenges.
Treatment technologies for food processing wastewater The types of treatment technologies used for food processing wastewater are not unusual among wastewater treatment options and include the typical array of biological and physical chemical treatments. Fruit and vegetable processing Many of the aforementioned treatment processes are used in vegetable and food processing wastewater.
Fishing industry There are many elements of production of fish products that generate solid and liquid wastes. Meat and poultry industries Wastes from the meat and poultry industries include those generated by the animals during livestock holding as well as high-strength wastes produced during processing. Dairy production The two main elements are milk bottling and milk product production of whey, butter, cheese, ice cream, yogurts, cottage cheese and other milk derivatives.
SUEZ to expand Hungarian ultrafiltration facility The facility, which manufactures ultrafiltration membranes for water and wastewater treatment, is expected to be completed in Brown and Caldwell to design waste-to-energy upgrades at wastewater treatment facility Wastewater facility to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions via biogas recycling. Process Water. Smart Storm Ltd. Russian River Brewing deploys Tsurumi aerators to treat wastewater The aerators help the brewery recycle its wastewater to minimize the ecological impact.
Legionella growth and health risks from wastewater plants for workers and downwind communities Legionella growth has been seen in petrochemical, food and dairy, paper mill and brewery wastewater. Facilities can implement safety measures to mitigate contamination.
Joseph Cotruvo. Achieving Water Authority Compliance with Automated Wastewater Treatment Automated wastewater treatment systems help manufacturers remain in compliance with EPA and local standards, while significantly reducing the cost of treatment, labor and disposal. Ion Selective Electrode Technology Established techniques for monitoring total residual oxidants in wastewater suffer from several performance limitations.
The latest ion-selective electrode technology offer a more accurate, sensitive and robust solution for ensuring regulatory compliance. Suction, discharge and reverse osmosis hoses for industrial water facilities Matching hose selection with wastewater treatment requirements for pressure, temperature and chemical resistance allows a system to work efficiently.
Biovalorisation of Wastes to Renewable Chemicals and Biofuels addresses advanced technologies for converting waste to biofuels and value-added products. Biovalorisation has several advantages over conventional bioremediation processes as it helps reduce the costs of bioprocesses. Examples are provided of several successfully commercialized technologies, giving insight into developing, potential processes for biovalorisation of different wastes. Different bioprocess strategies are discussed for valorising the wastes coming from the leather industry, olive oil industry, pulp and paper, winery, textile, and food industries, as well as aquaculture.
Beef and Dairy Industries in “Death Spiral,” Will Collapse by 2030, Report Says
In combination with the projected world population of nine billion by , further malnourishment of both humans and animals may occur; therefore, understanding of the current status of food waste and reuse is important. Large amounts of food waste meat, vegetables, fruits, and breads are produced daily. Results of the previous research suggest that food waste can be used successfully in diets of monogastric animals. The poultry industry is growing globally and uses large amounts of corn and soy for poultry diets; therefore, research should be conducted to investigate the partial use of alternative feed ingredients to meet the growing demand for poultry production. We proposed that food waste, occurring in all sectors of the food supply chain, could become a partial substitute for corn and soy in broiler diets. Variations in food production, distribution, and consumption have led to exorbitant food waste around the world. The continued production of waste and concomitant movement of people from rural to urban habitation are compounding factors.
Avoiding meat and dairy is ‘single biggest way’ to reduce your impact on Earth
Hunger is usually not caused by a global shortage of food production. Although a billion people are hungry, we harvest 4, calories per day per person but only 2, per person are consumed. Agriculture is the largest driver of species loss and habitat destruction. Increasing meat consumption requires more land, often obtained by deforestation or land acquisitions. Beef consumes 60 times more water than grain per Kcal produced. It takes a thousand litres of water to produce one litre of milk. A significant reduction in livestock numbers would reduce GHGs quickly and at a fraction of the cost of changing the energy and transport sectors.
Here are 10 reasons why the meat and dairy industry is unsustainable: 1. Deforestation Farm animals require considerably more land than crops to produce a given amount of food energy. In Central America alone, 40 percent of all rainforests have been cleared in the last 40 years for cattle pasture to feed the export market — often for U. The World Hunger Program calculated that recent world harvests — if distributed equitably and fed directly to humans, as opposed to livestock — could provide a vegan diet to 6 billion people. Fresh water Without a doubt, animal agriculture has one of the largest water footprints on the planet. The easiest way to reduce demand for water is to eliminate the consumption of animal products. In the U. Agricultural waste has polluted thousand of miles of rivers and contaminated groundwater, killing aquatic life and creating huge dead zones.
Meat & Dairy Industries Overproduce Despite Plummeting Demand
As meat industry sales go down, the United States is experiencing a huge surplus of animal products sold as food. Currently supplies of chicken, beef, pork, turkey, and milk far outweigh demand. And yet, even with an excess of chicken in cold storage, the USDA is granting waivers for chicken slaughterhouses to increase line speeds and kill even more birds per minute.
Consolidation in agriculture is the shift toward fewer and larger farms. The number of U. Over the same period, the average number of hogs per farm increased from 37 to 1, Most 60 percent hogs in the U. Average per capita availability of animal products, At roughly three times the global average, the average American consumes more meat, milk, and eggs than nearly any other citizen of the world. Average per capita availability of meat in the U. Total U.
Meat-Free Monday Campaign
We cannot address climate change without reducing the production and consumption of industrial meat and dairy. These deals must be stopped and replaced with initiatives that allow communities and countries to grow their local markets in cooperation and mutual support. Download the print version of the fact sheet. Industrial Livestock. Share this twitter print pocket email facebook. Apr 25, Used under creative commons license from ilri. The Issue We cannot address climate change without reducing the production and consumption of industrial meat and dairy. Nearly half is in the form of methane, a gas 30 times more effective than carbon dioxide at trapping heat in our atmosphere but quick to disappear once we stop producing it.
Food waste in animal feed with a focus on use for broilers
This contribution would have been much greater had the animal by-products been also efficiently utilized. Efficient utilization of by-products has direct impact on the economy and environmental pollution of the country. Non-utilization or under utilization of by-products not only lead to loss of potential revenues but also lead to the added and increasing cost of disposal of these products. Non-utilization of animal by-products in a proper way may create major aesthetic and catastrophic health problems. Besides pollution and hazard aspects, in many cases meat, poultry and fish processing wastes have a potential for recycling raw materials or for conversion into useful products of higher value. Traditions, culture and religion are often important when a meat by-product is being utilized for food. Regulatory requirements are also important because many countries restrict the use of meat by-products for reasons of food safety and quality. By-products such as blood, liver, lung, kidney, brains, spleen and tripe has good nutritive value.
While most people grow up believing that animal agriculture is a natural and efficient system for getting protein, the reality paints a vastly different picture. And with more than 70 billion animals consumed globally every year, growing animal feed requires vast amounts of land. Which is why the single biggest source of habitat destruction is said to be the livestock sector.
The range of food products presents different wastewater challenges. Examples include: fruits and vegetables for canning and preserving, fish, meat and poultry, dairy products, and fats and oils.
Forum Carni will deal with the meat analogues and the cultivated meat. Food industries Conservation and food security Consumers and food Meat, dairy and fish industry Food technology.
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