Early internal combustion IC engine designers like Gottfried Daimler and Rudolf Diesel adapted the steam expansion chamber to a combined combustion and expansion chamber, leaving hardware essentially unchanged. One could say that a transformed twenty-first century embodiment of the reciprocating IC engine is overdue. This disclosure focuses on improved thermal management in reciprocating devices, including pumps, compressors and IC engines. In the latter case, the improvements lead to a range of more advanced engines, ranging from modified versions of today's products, to new embodiments of reciprocating devices. In a conventional reciprocating IC engine, the rapid burning of the combustion charge in the confined space of the combustion volume produces expansion and heat.
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Marine Machinery RegulationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: New study on Dual Fuel Diesel Electric Propulsion for LNG Carriers
Power into the future with confidence. Our environmentally friendly seal and bearing solutions are designed to ensure smooth and continuous operation of all vessel types, even in the most challenging environments. Americas Sulphur Cap Conference 10 A look at how one of the most pressing issues facing the industry — fuel prices — was considered at the Americas Sulphur Cap Conference.
Container-handling technology 16 Why ultra large container ships have facilitated the need for new lashing and twistlock solutions to optimise cargo capacity 19 The latest developments in loading software, including revised route-specific lashing rules 23 How new cargo-handling systems are allowing container-ship operators to increase carrying capacity and earnings potential.
Yard profile 26 Ferguson Marine Engineering is taking a lead in hydrogen-fuelled propulsion, evidenced by two ground-breaking new projects. Driveline: gearboxes 43 The demands placed on gearboxes and transmissions by hybrid and electric vessels.
Driveline: shafting, couplings and dampers 47 How Dellner Brakes is looking to develop and grow its business. But should they have been spotted earlier? Driveline: propellers 55 A look at the fabrication techniques and modern materials being utilised in the quest for the perfect propeller. Performance management 58 More reliable sensor data can bring dramatic improvements in performance 60 A new tool that helps owners know when to spend on hull cleaning 62 Could artificial intelligence facilitate predictive maintenance in shipping?
Fuels and lubricants 64 With less than a year before the sulphur cap, there remains no consensus on the damage compliant fuels may do to engine cylinders.
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Growing use of environmentally acceptable lubricants is one common explanation for the trend. Others point to design changes demanded by energy efficiency requirements, including heavier propellers combined with shorter, thinner propeller shafts. Another suggestion led me down a different avenue. Giulio Gennaro of Gennaro Consulting argued that the source of the problem often lies in propulsion systems that are poorly designed knowingly, to save on cost.
The problem is compounded as poor design is not often included in insurance. So, shipowners are tempted to ignore bad design and file claims that are easier to recover. The true cause of the incident is never recorded, and the design flaw can easily go unrectified, compromising safety and reliability in a market where these are paramount.
That impact of insurance practices on bearing failures was the first unexpected link I came across. The second came about when I asked our website readers about these issues. Do insurance practicalities affect reporting of incidents and hinder design improvements? I was not expecting a response from an automation company.
The various electronic systems are also lacking key features for logging data for later analysis. This prevents an overall approach to the underlying causes of incidents. There are people who are afraid that the real causes of incidents will be laid bare. But looking to the future there is reason to take comfort. Automation and integration will inevitably play a wider role in shipping, be that through power management of hybrid propulsion concepts, regulating engines burning new fuels, or striving to improve efficiency and optimise maintenance.
As these trends take hold, a more holistic view of the ship will enable us to identify, isolate and even prevent incidents. That enhanced understanding of root causes should lead to a dramatic improvement in safety and reliability. As for a journalist chasing a story, there are likely to be many unexpected revelations along the way.
Book now to access critical insights on market-defining issues as shipping counts down to But that may be where it leads. The hugely influential study has acted as a reference point for carbon and energy efficiency regulations at IMO since it was published in There has been an unprecedented volume of emissions legislation in that time, including the establishment of an initial GHG reduction strategy, a data-collection system for emissions and significant revisions in the Energy Efficiency Design Index.
A fourth study will be started in the first half of and is due to be completed next year. An expert workshop preparing for the study will meet in London on March. The document will be relied on heavily, like its predecessor.
This time the stakes are arguably even higher, as IMO assesses the candidate measures that will help it meet its GHG emission reduction ambitions. These scenarios project short- to mid-term economic growth that is considerably higher than current economic trends. BIMCO wants to avoid that happening again. The companies have produced a revised calculation that includes the most recent OECD projections. To pick the right solutions, the industry needs realistic projections.
A boat. A ship. A vessel. Whatever her job, whatever her purpose, we take pride in building you something useful, something good. Others will have to look to technologies that have so far played only a small role in the maritime sector. The challenge remains the selection of the appropriate compliance method and the preparation of fleet, crew and ancillary functions.
Opportunities include improving the cost base relative to competitors, investing in efficient new technologies and processes and safeguarding the fleet against future environmental regulation. Book your place online today at www. MAN Energy Solutions has announced it will spend the next two to three years developing a two-stroke engine — more accurately, modifying its existing dual-fuel concept — that burns ammonia as fuel.
Windfarm developer Siemens Gamesa approached MAN when it began considering producing ammonia at its windfarms. It wanted to make sure it had a consumer. Ammonia, which is used as a fertiliser, cleaning agent and refrigerant, is shipped in industrial quantities by LPG carriers.
Developing that engine to burn ammonia would bring more fuel flexibility to the LPG carrier fleet. The engine could eventually be used by other ship types, given a clean and abundant supply of ammonia. A project slated for April investigating the fuel also includes a container-ship owner. But MAN notes that it is easy to clean exhaust gases using ammonia as a catalyst in a selective catalytic reduction unit, leaving just nitrogen and water vapour.
Today, mostly. Methane-rich natural gas from coal, oil and gas operations is converted to hydrogen, by steam reforming, and then to ammonia by the Haber-Bosch process. So although ammonia burns cleanly at the funnel, there is a carbon footprint. That is about to change. Renewable electricity can power an alternative method of hydrogen creation, using electrolysis to extract hydrogen from water.
Combine this with nitrogen extracted from the air and you have truly clean ammonia with no carbon footprint. Hydrogen is a potential clean fuel for shortsea and coastal shipping applications, particularly as an energy source for fuel cells. But Siemens has calculated that it is more efficient to convert hydrogen into ammonia than to either liquefy or compress hydrogen after it is produced. Ammonia does not need to be compressed and is liquid at normal temperatures under relatively low pressures — another reason why it could be a good shipping fuel.
Not much. A fuel gas system would supply ammonia at around 20 bar. Injection will need to be considered, but is likely to be around bar, which is the pressure used for injecting LPG today.
Kyushu University in Japan is already studying combustion and heat transfer characteristics. These will enable MAN to programme software controlling fuel injection, as well as informing any optimisation of nozzle design.
Another obstacle is the use of a toxic substance as a fuel, which is currently prohibited under the IGC Code governing the bulk carriage of lowflashpoint fuels.
Total offshore wind capacity reached Oil analyst predicts short, sharp sulphur shock At the Americas Sulphur Cap Conference in Houston on March, Argus Media oil pricing analyst Stefka Wechsler discussed the fuel price factors influencing compliance decisions. That is the pareddown message behind forward curves — the current price at which a deal for future delivery can be struck — for both high-sulphur fuel oil and low-sulphur distillates, according to the most recent analysis from price reporting agency Argus Media.
Similarly, the charts for US Gulf ultra-low sulphur diesel with 0. They may not be forecasts, but the changes do indicate increased clarity on fuel pricing as nears.
Suppliers including BP, Shell and ExxonMobil have been testing blends and are now pegging prices for compliant fuels, while there is evidence that trades are emerging. In Dubai, the company has received inquiries for compliant fuel oil in Fujairah.
Prices are important, but for those comparing the cost of compliance options, it is the spread between complaint fuels that is crucial. Ms Wechsler forecasts that the spread between low-sulphur and highsulphur fuel oil will widen, starting in Q4 With around 10 months to go, the situation remains complex, says Ms Wechsler.
Pricing, demand and availability will continue to evolve rapidly as the fateful day approaches. The European Sulphur Cap Conference, to be held in Amsterdam on May, will advance these themes and explore industry readiness for the changes ahead. For more information visit: www. We cannot rule the waves, but we do control our foundry and machining facilities. For 90 years and 3 generations our company has provided the marine propulsion industry with high integrity castings in Nickel Aluminium Bronze.
Our success is built on delicate blending of traditional foundry practice with cutting edge technology. We strive to stay in front, our products do the driving. We are absolutely deliwww. We are absolutely delighted to confirm we are a totally independent company not associated with any engine builder We are Weabsolutely are delighted absolutely todelighted confirm we to confirm are totally wea are independent a totally independent company not company associated not associated with any withengine any builder engine builder Weabsolutely are delighted to confirm wea are totally independent company not associated withengine any builder.
The container-ship sector has traditionally been focused on ultra-large tonnage, but with the sulphur cap just around the corner, attention is now turning to making vessels as environmentally friendly as possible.
Eight 23,TEU newbuilds belonging to MSC are due to be delivered this year — the largest box ships ever ordered — with the last three to be phased in in
CA2759121A1 - New reciprocating machines and other devices - Google Patents
July 1, Dealer, Piainiield, N. Application December 23, , Serial No. The invention relates more specifically to apparatus for the surface and underwater propulsion of submarine vessels by the use of high pressure steam. The term high pressure is intended to mean pressures up to or above the order of two thousand pounds per square inch. The propulsion of submarines on the surface by steam has been accomplished heretofore. It has also been known to provide submarines with compressed air reservoirs to supply air for the operation of internal combustion engines while the vessel is submerged.
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less frequently, in pump-jets , an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, and sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys , some equipped with sail, also played an important early role. The first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine , introduced in the early 19th century.
Marine propulsion is the mechanism or system used to generate thrust to move a ship or boat across water. While paddles and sails are still used on some smaller boats, most modern ships are propelled by mechanical systems consisting of an electric motor or engine turning a propeller , or less frequently, in pump-jets , an impeller. Marine engineering is the discipline concerned with the engineering design process of marine propulsion systems. Manpower, in the form of paddles, and sail were the first forms of marine propulsion. Rowed galleys , some equipped with sail, also played an important early role. The first advanced mechanical means of marine propulsion was the marine steam engine , introduced in the early 19th century. During the 20th century it was replaced by two-stroke or four-stroke diesel engines , outboard motors, and gas turbine engines on faster ships. Marine nuclear reactors , which appeared in the s, produce steam to propel warships and icebreakers ; commercial application, attempted late that decade, failed to catch on. Electric motors using electric battery storage have been used for propulsion on submarines and electric boats and have been proposed for energy-efficient propulsion.
Understanding Different Operational Modes Of Shaft Generator On Ships
The shaft generator on a ship is an excellent example of a waste heat recovery system , which not only utilizes the waste energy from the engine but also supplies the additional work to the propeller shaft when the main engine is underperforming. The Shaft Generator — Motor circuit breaker is usually closed, if not, an operator can close the circuit breaker via the PMS panel. This command is released if sufficient apparent power is available.
Там открывался вид на стоянку автомобилей агентства, а из окна комнаты для заседаний был виден внушительный ряд корпусов АНБ - в том числе и купол шифровалки, это вместилище высочайших технологий, возведенное отдельно от основного здания и окруженное тремя акрами красивого парка. Шифровалку намеренно разместили за естественной ширмой из высоченных кленов, и ее не было видно из большинства окон комплекса АНБ, а вот отсюда открывался потрясающий вид - как будто специально для директора, чтобы он мог свободно обозревать свои владения.
Однажды Мидж предложила Фонтейну перебраться в эту комнату, но тот отрезал: Не хочу прятаться в тылу.
Техника извлечения. - Она пробежала глазами таблицу. - Уран распадается на барий и криптон; плутоний ведет себя несколько. В уране девяносто два протона и сто сорок шесть нейтронов, но… - Нам нужна самоочевидная разница, - подсказала Мидж.
- У Танкадо сказано: главная разница между элементами. - Господи Иисусе! - вскричал Джабба. - Откуда нам знать, что для Танкадо было главной разницей. - На самом деле, - прервал его Дэвид, - Танкадо имел в виду первичную, а не главную разницу. Его слова буквально обожгли Сьюзан.
Это сделаю я, - сказал он, встал и, спотыкаясь, начал выбираться из-за стола. Сьюзан, чуть подтолкнув, усадила его на место. - Нет! - рявкнула. - Пойду я! - Ее тон говорил о том, что возражений она не потерпит. Стратмор закрыл лицо руками. - Хорошо. Это на нижнем этаже.
US2247595A - Marine propulsion system - Google Patents
Сьюзан быстро встала и, расплескивая воду, потянулась к трубке, лежавшей на краю раковины. - Дэвид. - Это Стратмор, - прозвучал знакомый голос. Сьюзан плюхнулась обратно в ванну. - Ох! - Она не могла скрыть разочарование.
- С руки Танкадо исчезло кольцо. - Да. К счастью, Дэвид это обнаружил. Он проявил редкую наблюдательность.
Да. Я могу прямо сейчас отвести вас в участок… - Беккер выразительно замолчал и прищелкнул пальцами. - Или?.
Какого черта я здесь делаю. Я должен был сейчас отдыхать в Смоуки-Маунтинс. Он вздохнул и задал единственный вопрос, который пришел ему в голову; - Как выглядит эта девушка. - Era un punqui, - ответила Росио.
Подождите… сейчас посмотрю… отлично… - Сорок пять секунд! - раздался крик. Сьюзан взглянула на ВР. Последний защитный слой был уже почти невидим.