Fabrication refers to any process that cuts, shapes, or otherwise forms a material into an end product, and this article covers the advantages and disadvantages of plastic over metal fabrication, and vice versa. The type of fabrication method used to produce a particular item depends on a wide range of factors, including the products purpose, appearance, and available budget. Before determining whether plastic or metal fabrication is appropriate for a particular job, it is important to first understand the potential advantages and disadvantages of each option. This range allows for a considerable number of customization and selection options in component design. Some of the more common fabrication processes include:. Although plastic is useful for fabricating a wide range of parts, it also has its share of limitations as a production material.
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- Stainless Steel
- 3 Categories & 13 Types of Plumbing Pipes
- Plastic Vs. Metal Fabrication - Advantages and Disadvantages
- Welcome to Builtware Fabrication Inc.
- Welded wire mesh
- Galvanised steel coils
- Metal Shoring
- 7 Tips for Welding Abrasion-Resistant Plate
- What Materials Are Used For Building Ships?
- Galvanised sheets
Stainless SteelVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Time Lapse How to Weld a Predator Sculpture from Scrap Recycled Metal
The economic aspect of running a merchant vessel is of prime importance as a shipowner requires a build which maximises the returns for his initial investment and covers his running costs. This implies that the final design takes into account the economic conditions at the time of building, and also those that are likely to develop within the life of the ship. Apart from this, the safety of seafarers on board, the type of vessel, the operational logistics of the voyages is taken into serious consideration while planning and executing the shipbuilding operations.
Various classification societies which are based out of different maritime nations have come into existence for initial and continual inspection of ships. Classification societies publish rules and regulations concerned with the provision of adequate equipment, the reliability of the machinery used on board, the strength of the ship, etc. The vessel may be built in any country and are not restricted to classification only by the relevant society of that country; they can follow regulations in accordance with the rules of any particular classification society.
While classification is not compulsory for all ships, it is a common industry practice as it is a good endorsement for the company and vessel. Shipowners with an unclassed ship must satisfy governmental regulating bodies to ensure that the vessel has necessary structural strength for assigning a load line, and the issuing of a safety construction certificate. This is a highly versatile ship construction material and is used extensively on ships for the making of its integral structure and parts.
Steel has been in use for over years in the shipbuilding industry, thanks to its excellent mechanical properties and low cost. For the construction of the hull of a ship, mild steel containing 0. Sulphur and phosphorus contents in the mild steel are kept to a minimum less than 0. Furthermore, cracks and such can develop easily during the rolling process if the sulphur content is high.
High Tensile Steels Steels which have higher strength than that of mild steel are employed in the more stressed regions of large tankers , container ships and bulk carriers. They are often used for the deck and bottom regions of larger tankers as well. As this leads to a reduction in the scantlings of these structural items, it proves advantageous both for the shipbuilder and owner.
Some integral parts of the ship that are made of steel include; the thickness stringer plate, rounded gunwales, sheerstrake, Bilge strake, deck strake in the way of the longitudinal bulkheads, main deck plating, bottom plating, keel, and the upper strake of longitudinal bulkheads. Mast tables, crosstrees, etc. Derrick booms, as a rule, are welded lengths of seamless tubular steel. There are three main advantages which Aluminium alloys have over mild steel in the construction of ships.
Aluminium is lighter than mild steel and studies suggest that up to 60 percent of the weight of a steel structure can be saved by using Al alloys. For merchant vessels, this is a key advantage for increasing the cargo carrying capacity of ships. The most often used Al-alloys used in shipbuilding are the type for plates and for extrusions. These alloys are reliable in marine service as well as during manufacture.
Excellent corrosion properties of aluminium can be used easily, but correct maintenance procedures and careful insulation from the adjoining steel structures are necessary when using this material.
A major disadvantage of the use of aluminium alloys is their high initial cost They are estimated to cost 8 to 10 times the price of steel per tonnage. This high initial cost must be absorbed by an increase in the earning capacity of the vessel or a major increase in passenger accommodation on the same draft.
Aluminium alloys can replace carbon steels of normal strength. The weight saved by using Al alloys improves the ship stability — and allows the design of narrower ships, which in turn enhances fuel efficiency. This forms the watertight skin of the ship contributes to the longitudinal strength of the structure and resists vertical shear forces.
The bottom and side shell plating consist of several flat and curved steel plates are butt welded together. They are of greater length than breadth. A steel hull structure is an excellent conductor of heat. Some form of insulation must be provided at the boundaries where there is a requirement to maintain desired temperatures, such as the refrigeration compartments.
Cork, glass fibre, and different kinds of foam plastics in sheet or granulated form may be used for insulating purposes. Air spaces, which are less efficient, may be provided. Glass fibre is widely used in modern ships as it has several advantages over the other materials. It is light in weight, tends to be vermin-proof, does not absorb moisture and is fire-resistant. These are hence used on passenger ships and cruise ships. It is possible to accept more significant deformation in these superstructures than would be possible with steel.
This is brought about by the lighter weight of the aluminium structure. In some instances, it is necessary to provide access between compartments on either side of a watertight bulkhead. Hence watertight doors are fitted for this purpose. For example, in a cargo ship, direct means of access is required between the engine room and the shaft tunnel. In passenger ships, watertight doors are found where passengers are allowed to pass between one point of the accommodation and another.
Mild steel or cast steel watertight doors are fitted below the water line, which prevents flooding of the compartments when shut while providing adequate strength in the case of emergencies. This structure supports the rudder and the propeller. The stern itself may be cast, forged, or fabricated from steel plate and sections. Modern rudders are also fabricated from steel plates, with plate sides that are stiffened by internal webs.
To prevent corrosion, the internal surfaces are suitably coated, and the rudder may be filled with inert plastic foam. The rudder pintle is a bolt or pin which is inserted into a gudgeon to attach the rudder to the ship. Older ships may have a brass liner or bronze liner shrunk on the pintles which turn in hardwood Lignum Vitae bearings, fitted in the gudgeons. In these days, the industry practice is to use synthetic materials like Tufnol for the bearings, and in some cases stainless steels for the liners.
In either, the water which immerses the bearing is used to lubricate it. The stock may be of cast or forged steel, with its diameter as determined by the torque and any bending moment it is to withstand. As they have to withstand the corrosive effects of saltwater, ship propellers are constructed from copper alloys such as brass. These are designed to minimize cavitation, which happens when a propeller working under heavy load creates a region of low pressure.
Bubbles of water vapour form suddenly and then burst next to the propeller blades, blasting little pits into the surface and wearing it away. The fitting of zinc plates in the way of bronze propellers and other immersed fittings being used as sacrificial anodes is common practice in shipbuilding. These anodes are metals or alloys attached to the hull, which have more anodic potential than steel when immersed in sea water.
Hence these anodes supply cathodic protection current and get consumed in doing so. Regular maintenance and replacement are hence required in such systems for protection. Modern anodes are based on alloys of zinc, aluminium, or magnesium which have undergone many tests to examine their suitability; high purity zinc anodes are also used. Sacrificial anodes are fitted with the hull and also often in ballast tanks as well. Should any part of the anode fall and strike the tank structure where gaseous conditions exist, an explosion could result and hence magnesium anodes are not used in the cargo-ballast tanks of oil carriers owing to spark hazards.
Aluminium anode system is employed in tankers, and they are only fitted in locations where the potential energy is less than 28 kg. Maintenance of a ship requires that its hull and parts be painted regularly to avoid corrosion and provide resistance to other natural elements.
It is spread out thinly and overtime the vehicle changes to form an adherent dry film. To accelerate the drying by the natural reaction with oxygen, driers are added.
Some of these resins may react with the oil to give a faster drying vehicle. Other resins do not react with the oil but heat is applied to dissolve the resin and cause the oil to stick to the body.
The name alkyd arises from alcohols and acids, which are the chemical ingredients. These may not be made from oil, as an oil fatty acid or an oil-free acid may be used. Vehicle types 2 and 4 are not suitable for underwater service, and only certain kinds of c are ideal for such service. Copper oxides and biocides are commonly used in anti-fouling paints. Another type of hard bottom paint includes Teflon and silicone coatings, which are too slippery for growth to stick.
To construct a ship that floats when immersed water, marine engineers and naval architects rely on the Archimedes principle. This principle describes an upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body that is fully or partially immersed in a fluid, which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.
This buoyant force acts at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid and in the upward direction. For an object to float in water, the amount of water it displaces should be equal to the weight of the object. This volume of water which is displaced by a ship depends not only on the weight of the object but also on its shape and size.
It can be observed that an iron nail sinks in water, while the same material iron arranged in different size and form, i. We can see that if the construction of the structure is such that the density of the vessel is less than that of water, the ship will float in water. Hence a seaworthy steel vessel will have a lower average density than water, which enables it to float. The shipbuilders also have to consider the intact stability and damage stability while designing the ship.
Data and charts, if used, in the article have been sourced from available information and have not been authenticated by any statutory authority. The author and Marine Insight do not claim it to be accurate nor accept any responsibility for the same.
The views constitute only the opinions and do not constitute any guidelines or recommendation on any course of action to be followed by the reader. The article or images cannot be reproduced, copied, shared or used in any form without the permission of the author and Marine Insight. He is a passionate traveller, always about exploring the world and immersing himself in new cultures and experiential activities. He has a wide set of interests that encompass everything from alternative energy solutions, world cuisines, history, art and photography.
The economic aspect of running a merchant vessel is of prime importance as a shipowner requires a build which maximises the returns for his initial investment and covers his running costs. This implies that the final design takes into account the economic conditions at the time of building, and also those that are likely to develop within the life of the ship. Apart from this, the safety of seafarers on board, the type of vessel, the operational logistics of the voyages is taken into serious consideration while planning and executing the shipbuilding operations. Various classification societies which are based out of different maritime nations have come into existence for initial and continual inspection of ships. Classification societies publish rules and regulations concerned with the provision of adequate equipment, the reliability of the machinery used on board, the strength of the ship, etc. The vessel may be built in any country and are not restricted to classification only by the relevant society of that country; they can follow regulations in accordance with the rules of any particular classification society.
3 Categories & 13 Types of Plumbing Pipes
The metal smelting and refining industry processes metal ores and scrap metal to obtain pure metals. The metal working industries process metals in order to manufacture machine components, machinery, instruments and tools which are needed by other industries as well as by the other different sectors of the economy. Various types of metals and alloys are used as starting materials, including rolled stock bars, strips, light sections, sheets or tubes and drawn stock bars, light sections, tubes or wire. Basic metal processing techniques include:. A wide variety of techniques are used to finish metals, including grinding and polishing, abrasive blasting and many surface finishing and coating techniques electroplating, galvanizing, heat treatment, anodizing, powder coating and so forth.
Plastic Vs. Metal Fabrication - Advantages and Disadvantages
Galvanised steel is represented by cold- and hot-rolled coils with a zinc coating, which helps to protect the steel against atmospheric corrosion. Galvanised steel coils are successfully used in industries with stringent requirements for corrosion resistance, durability, strength and appearance, and can be formed or have various coatings applied. Manufacturers also have their own original standards. You can order galvanised coils from the manufacturer by submitting a request on the website. To do this, go to the catalog and specify the desired product parameters. You can also order galvanised coils or get advice and find out prices for structural and general-purpose steel at Company offices around the world.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Producing the world's first 3D-printed bridge with robots "is just the beginning" - Joris Laarman
SGS provides industrial surveying, the erection of steel constructions and halls as well as mechanical and electrical installation of machines and complete production lines. Worldwide relocations are also a core service competence of SGS. Renown suppliers, automobile and other commercial vehicle manufacturers trust the exceptional commissioning support provided by SGS. Experienced SGS employees work diligently and on schedule to the highest requirements of clients in the printing press and textile machinery industry, making SGS a worldwide reliable and sought-after partner. Mechanical and electrical installations by SGS are performed under highest hygiene and safety standards, catering to the specific needs of clients in the beverage and packaging industry worldwide. Renown and worldwide leading machinery manu- facturers count on SGS as a reliable partner for their service and installation departments. SGS offers an international network and realizes projects in a straightforward and efficient manner worldwide. Our Assembly Competences.
Welcome to Builtware Fabrication Inc.
Structural steel is the backbone to most commercial, industrial and some residential buildings. With our in house CNC cutting system, ton punching system and ton CNC braking capability, we can fabricate most any structural component required without outsourcing. Architectural fabrication is often misunderstood as an "easy" scope on most construction projects.
Metal has been worked by humans for thousands of years. Over time, the techniques and technology used to produce and shape metal goods have been driven by the innovations of science and technology. Before we dive into some of the technical processes available for welding metal together, let's first take a moment to define a weld. A weld is a fabrication process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by fusion. Fusing materials is distinctly different than other kinds of lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as soldering, which do not melt the base metal. Metal welding is the fusing of two pieces of metal to create one solid continuous piece. All welders work on the same principle: A gas torch or electric welder is used to generate precisely directed heat to melt material, and a filler material is introduced by the operator to complete the fusion. With time has come innovation and accessibility, and now we've come so far that you - yes YOU! Let's get started!
Welded wire mesh
Stainless steel is an iron-containing alloy—a substance made up of two or more chemical elements—used in a wide range of applications. It has excellent resistance to stain or rust due to its chromium content, usually from 12 to 20 percent of the alloy. There are more than 57 stainless steels recognized as standard alloys, in addition to many proprietary alloys produced by different stainless steel producers. About , tons of nickel-containing stainless steel is used each year by the food processing industry in North America. It is used in a variety of food handling, storing, cooking, and serving equipment—from the beginning of the food collection process through to the end. Beverages such as milk, wine, beer, soft drinks and fruit juice are processed in stainless steel equipment. Stainless steel is also used in commercial cookers, pasteurizers, transfer bins, and other specialized equipment. Advantages include easy cleaning, good corrosion resistance, durability, economy, food flavor protection, and sanitary design. According to the U.
Galvanised steel coils
Cargo information. Marine insurance. Load securing. Photo of the month. German version - Homepage. Container Handbook. Steel profiles. Prestressed concrete reinforcement steel smooth, ribbed, profiled round steel bars is used for prestressed concrete structures and is far stronger than concrete reinforcement steel.
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7 Tips for Welding Abrasion-Resistant Plate
Galvanised flat products are cold-rolled or hot-rolled steel sheets with a zinc coating to protect the substrate against atmospheric corrosion. Galvanised steel sheets are in high demand in industries with stringent requirements for corrosion resistance, durability, strength, appearance and possibility of forming, stamping and applying various additional coatings.
What Materials Are Used For Building Ships?
Complex development and delivery of casting systems for sanitary ware. Design and fabrication of resin moulds for pressure casting.
Many types of plumbing pipes for construction and home, they come in many varieties and types of metal and plastic pipes, the most common plumbing pipes used today are copper, PVC, or ABS. But you must select the plumbing pipes according to its work and suitability as well as prices.