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- Making Car Interior Components: Jute fibre shows huge potential
- Natural Fibres and the World Economy
- Underexploited Temperate Industrial and Fiber Crops
- BSCI 124 Lecture Notes
- cut piece of natural raw jute fibre
- All You Ever Wanted to Know About Jute
- Natural Fiber Composites Slowly Take Root
- Value Added Products from Natural Fibres of Indian Himalayan Region
Making Car Interior Components: Jute fibre shows huge potentialVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Agronomics of Hemp: Grain and Fiber Hemp
World natural fiber production in is estimated at 33 million tons, including 26 million tons of cotton lint, 3. Download: Natural Fibres and the World Economy.
World natural fiber production in the latest year of complete data is estimated at 33 million tons, including 26 million tons of cotton lint, 3. Production of all other natural fibers, including abaca, flax, hemp, kapok, ramie, sisal, silk, and other fibers summed to approximately 1.
It is difficult to estimate employment in the agricultural segments of natural fiber value chains because most production occurs in developing countries with weak systems of data collection, most producers are small holders and most labor is hired informally and seasonally, and because many households go in and out of fiber production from one season to the next, making it difficult to know who and how many are employed in any one year. Global wool production was 1.
Australia is the leading producer of wool, which is mostly from Merino sheep. China is the second largest producer, and New Zealand is the third largest and the largest producer of crossbred wool. The wool industry produces wool on several million small-hold and commercial farms worldwide and employs millions of people in wool production, harvesting and throughout its many processing stages. The structure of wool production varies enormously from country to country. For example, the American sheep industry ASI , where sheep are raised primarily for meat rather than wool, has 79, sheep producers through the United States producing about 7, tons of wool, or about 90 kilograms clean basis per producer.
On the other hand, Australian Wool Innovation reports that in Australia where wool is the primary product 25, wool growers produced , tons of clean wool in , or about The British Wool Marketing Board has 46, registered wool producers accounting for 23, tons of wool, or about kilograms per producer.
Assuming that productivity per producer is the same in New Zealand and South Africa as in Australia, that productivity in European countries is similar to that in the UK, and that wool production per producer in other countries where meat is the primary output is similar to that in the United States, there might be about 5 million households producing wool around the world.
Sisal derives its name from a small port in the Yucatan peninsula of Mexico through which the earliest supplies of agave fibres, locally known as Henequen, were exported. Mexico had practically a monopoly of agave fibre production, mainly for cordage, until the early s.
However, demand stimulated cultivation elsewhere during the twentieth century, and plantations appeared in many parts of the world based on different species of agave that had been transplanted from its original home. Agave sisalana sisal proved the most successful of these species. Cultivation of agave sisalana developed into a major industry in East Africa, particularly in Tanzania and Kenya, prior to World War Two. Hybrid varieties of the plant were developed that gave extended production life and higher fibre content to the leaves.
During the post Second World War years, rapid growth occurred in Brazil, and Brazil is the largest producer and exporter today, followed by China. Sisal is produced by smallholders in Brazil, while sisal in other countries is commercially produced on medium to large sized plantations. Sisal is unique among fibre crops in that it is a perennial, and the first harvest comes only three years after planting.
Sisal is labor intensive, and employment in sisal production is estimated at one person per ton, or about , persons in between 50, and , households. Over many years the main products made from sisal were binder twines and cordage used mainly in baling agricultural products. However, demand for sisal baler twine has declined over the last 30 years due to competition from twine made from polypropylene.
The end uses of sisal fibre have diversified in recent years, and it is now used in composite materials, as a replacement for glass fibres and the strengthening of plastics.
It is also being used in various components in the automobile industry and in commercial aircraft, in the geotextiles sector for land reclamation schemes and the stabilization of slopes in road construction. There are applications in plaster reinforcement in the construction of domestic property in certain parts of the world, and sisal is also used as padding for mattresses and domestic furniture, and in the handicraft sector for handbags, placemats, animal figures and other products.
European production of flax fibers ex scutching mills a process of separating flax fibers from the woody parts of the plant was , metric tons in , including , tons of long fibers and 45, tons of short fibers. Approximately 10, companies in 14 European Union countries are involved in the linen industry to produce finished fabrics, from planting and harvesting flax, to scutchers, to spinners, weavers, knitters, finishers and traders.
Flax is grown without irrigation, and all commercial varieties are developed conventionally. There are around 7, flax growers in Europe alone, and worldwide there are probably between 8, and 10, producers. Flax fibers show very good mechanical properties especially stiffness and absorption of sound and vibrations and low density, which predisposes them for use as reinforcement of composites, giving the latter a more eco-friendly character.
About , hectares of Hemp were grown worldwide in , including 40, hectares in China, 25, in Canada and 17, in Europe. Production in Canada is for seeds only. Assuming that average farm size is similar to flax, about 3, households are involved in commercial hemp production. The only really established biocomposite market is compression moulding in automotive interior applications.
Hemp biocomposites account for 7, tons, including 3, tons of hemp fibre and 3, tons of other fibers. Chinese hemp fiber is mainly processed into textiles and exported around the world. Cotton is grown commercially in about 80 countries on approximately 2. Cotton is also a highly-traded commodity with about countries involved in exports or imports of lint.
Cotton connects people to markets because it is storable, durable, has a high ratio of value to cost of transportation and because it can be grown in arid regions. Therefore, cotton is grown mostly in land locked countries and interior regions of continents.
An estimated 40 to 45 million households are involved in cotton production around the world each season, and including seasonal labor an estimated million people are employed in cotton production during some parts of each season.
By far, the largest number of people involved in cotton is in China, where an estimated 30 million households are cotton producers. Average farm size in Eastern China is only about one-tenth of one hectare. Another 9 million households are involved in cotton production in the Indian subcontinent, and about 3.
The biggest challenges facing natural fiber industries, including the cotton industry, are economic in nature caused by competition with polyester and other oil-based fibers. The loss of market share to polyester, and especially to polyester filament, is a threat to the survival of the cotton industry and the entire staple fiber spinning industrial chain. Jute and kenaf kenaf and jute are different plants but have similar fiber characteristics are cultivated almost exclusively in developing countries of East Asia and in some parts of Latin America.
Until the late s, world production of jute fluctuated between 3 million and 3. Between and , world production exhibited a marked decline to an average level of 2. However, world jute and Kenaf production reached 3. Jute is processed mainly in the producing countries themselves and is used for the manufacturing of traditional products such as hessian cloth, food grade bags, carpet backing and other floor covering.
Because of a national law requiring the use of jute in packaging material, India is the largest jute consumer. Diversified jute products, such as geo-textiles and composites are manufactured in relatively small quantities. Jute cultivation and processing is labor-intensive and therefore provides a livelihood and is an important source of food security for many farmers and their families in Asia. Jute is the major cash crop for over 3 million farm households in Bangladesh Bangladesh Jute Textile Mills Corporation.
Assuming productivity is the same in India and other producing countries, 6 to 7 million households worldwide, meaning around 30 million people, are involved in jute cultivation.
When the full value chain, from agriculture, to marketing, transportation, manufacturing and trading are considered, 25 million people in Bangladesh alone, one-fifth of the population are dependent on jute. Silk is extraordinarily labor intensive because of the need to tend the silk worms, harvest the cocoons and unwind silk filament from cocoons; an estimated , people worldwide are involved in production of silk filament fiber.
India is the second largest producer of silk in the world after China. Silk is produced year round in Thailand. Most production is after the rice harvest in the southern and northeastern parts of the country.
World production of abaca, ramie, which is often blended with cotton in apparel fabrics, and sisal, an industrial fiber, totaled about , tons in Together, about one million people are involved in the production of these crops. Brown coir fibre is obtained from mature coconuts, while white coir fibre, which is finer, is extracted from immature green coconuts. Coir fibre is elastic enough to twist without breaking and it holds a curl as though permanently waved.
In a world economy measured in trillions of dollars, natural fiber industries can easily be overlooked by policy makers. Natural fiber industries contribute to food security and poverty alleviation. The greatest threat to the sustainability of natural fiber industries is competition with oil-based synthetic fibers.
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As the world is now keener on natural fibres and eco-friendly products, a French company is thinking of setting up a joint venture in Bangladesh for making jute-based car interior components. But you have to ensure quality jute," said Karim Behlouli, chief executive officer of NatUp Fibres, a leading French company based in Normandy. Talking to journalists visiting from Bangladesh in his office at Yvetot in Normandy last month, he said Bangladesh has a huge potential to become one of the major suppliers of jute to the global car industry. If the natural fibre is used in cars, it reduces the vehicle's weight and improves fuel efficiency.
Natural Fibres and the World Economy
Pandey , M. Abstract:- There are various types of fibres available as textile fibres. These are either natural or manmade synthetic. Recent trends show that use of natural fibres is increasing all across the world as compared to synthetic fibres because natural fibres are eco-friendly, skin friendly and most importantly they are biodegradable. The Indian Himalayan region has enormous natures fibre wealth, including pine needles.
Underexploited Temperate Industrial and Fiber Crops
Jute is a shiny, soft, long vegetable fiber that can be spun into strong, coarse tread. Primarily, it is produced from the genus Corchorus plants. At one point in time, this was classified in the Tillaceae family. In the last few years it was re-classified into the Malvaceae recently. The name of the fiber or plant used for making gunny cloth, hessian or burlap is called Jute. Second only to cotton in the produced amount, Jute is one of the natural fibers that are most affordable. In addition, it is also second to cotton in variety of uses.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Largest Hemp Mill in China
Biodegradable Matrices and Composites View all 17 Articles. The increase in awareness of the damage caused by synthetic materials on the environment has led to the development of eco-friendly materials. The researchers have shown a lot of interest in developing such materials which can replace the synthetic materials. As a result, there is an increase in demand for commercial use of the natural fiber-based composites in recent years for various industrial sectors. Natural fibers are sustainable materials which are easily available in nature and have advantages like low-cost, lightweight, renewability, biodegradability, and high specific properties. The sustainability of the natural fiber-based composite materials has led to upsurge its applications in various manufacturing sectors. In this paper, we have reviewed the different sources of natural fibers, their properties, modification of natural fibers, the effect of treatments on natural fibers, etc. We also summarize the major applications of natural fibers and their effective use as reinforcement for polymer composite materials.
BSCI 124 Lecture Notes
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Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus, which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae, and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin" along with kenaf, industrial hemp, flax linen , ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute. The fibers are off-white to brown, and 1—4 metres 3—13 feet long. Jute is also called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value. Jump to. Sections of this page.
cut piece of natural raw jute fibre
Natural and organic fibers become more and more popular these years. Most of the people come to realize that nature, soft and healthy are the most important things of the textile. Hemp fiber is naturally one of the most environmentally friendly fibers and also the oldest. The Columbia history of the world states that the oldest relics of human industry are bits of Hemp fabric discovered in tombs dating back to approximately B. Hemp is called a fiber of hundred uses. The significance of Hemp to the economic and day to day lives of our ancestors is increasingly being recognized. It was important for textile, paper, rope and oil production.
All You Ever Wanted to Know About Jute
Jute is a long, soft, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced primarily from plants in the genus Corchorus , which was once classified with the family Tiliaceae , and more recently with Malvaceae. The primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius , but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers , and second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed primarily of the plant materials cellulose and lignin. It falls into the bast fiber category fiber collected from bast, the phloem of the plant, sometimes called the "skin" along with kenaf , industrial hemp , flax linen , ramie , etc.
Natural Fiber Composites Slowly Take Root
Hemp , Cannabis sativa , also called industrial hemp , plant of the family Cannabaceae cultivated for its fibre bast fibre or its edible seeds. Hemp is sometimes confused with the cannabis plants that serve as sources of the drug marijuana and the drug preparation hashish. Although all three products—hemp, marijuana, and hashish—contain tetrahydrocannabinol THC , a compound that produces psychoactive effects in humans, the variety of cannabis cultivated for hemp has only small amounts of THC relative to that grown for the production of marijuana or hashish. The hemp plant is a stout, aromatic, erect annual herb.
Value Added Products from Natural Fibres of Indian Himalayan Region
Fibers derived from bio-based sources such as vegetables and animal origin are termed as natural fibers. This definition includes all natural cellulosic fibers cotton, jute, sisal, coir, flax, hemp, abaca, ramie, etc.
World natural fiber production in is estimated at 33 million tons, including 26 million tons of cotton lint, 3. Download: Natural Fibres and the World Economy. World natural fiber production in the latest year of complete data is estimated at 33 million tons, including 26 million tons of cotton lint, 3.
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