On the other hand, the accumulation of huge amounts of food wastes every year has led to environmental degradation and especially to significant loss of valuable material that could otherwise be exploited as new health-promoting ingredients, fuels and a great variety of additives. In this respect, the biggest challenge of the current scientific world is to convert the underutilised by-products generated by the food and beverage industries into more profitable and marketable added value products which would also contribute significantly to meet the nowadays society needs. This chapter gives an overview regarding the possibility of exploiting the brewing industry wastes as sources of bioactive compounds in order to produce functional ingredients and products with added value. Brewing Technology. The research on the recovery of new functional ingredients from natural sources is one of the most important challenges in food science and technology [ 1 , 2 ]. This fact has impacted the food and pharmaceutical industries, among others.
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Exploitation of Brewing Industry Wastes to Produce Functional IngredientsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Grow Leather-Like Material Using Bacteria (Making Kombucha Leather)
Food production and processing in developing countries generate high levels of waste and byproducts, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses.
However, these biomaterials have ample potential for generating food additives which in turn will minimize malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries where it is produced. Many of these biomaterials are a source of valuable compounds such as proteins, lipids, starch, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers.
Additionally, antinutritional factors present in some byproducts can be minimized through biotechnological processes for use as a food additive or in the formulation of balanced foods. In this context, the use of these biomaterials is a challenge and provides great opportunity to improve food security. The purpose of this review is to project the potential of food waste and byproducts as a sustainable alternative to reduce malnutrition and hunger in developing countries.
Agricultural production and agro-industrial processing generate a high amount of byproducts and waste. Fruit and food waste is also generated by damage during transportation, storage, and processing. The growing popularity of fruit juices, nectars, frozen and minimally processed products has also increased the production of byproducts and wastes in recent years.
Byproducts and waste generation are having an impact on environmental, economic, and social sectors. Many of these biomaterials are not utilized and end up in municipal landfills where they create serious environmental problems due to microbial decomposition and leachate production.
In some cases, the byproducts are burned to remove fungi and parasites. From the economic point of view, the adverse impact is due to the costs related to the handling of solid waste in landfills. Social impacts may be attributed to an ethical and moral dimension within the general concept of global food security since million people across the globe suffer from hunger FAO, To manage the nutritional problems of today's society; we require more composite nutritional sources. Food wastes and byproducts are of paramount importance here due to the presence of sufficient quantities of proteins, lipids, starch, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers.
Food fortification serves as a crucial strategy to fight malnutrition and important initiatives have been undertaken to utilize residues and byproducts in Europe and USA Schieber et al.
Poorer nations where the problems of malnutrition and hunger exists at a higher level, there is a greater potential of exploitation of these biomaterials as they generate large quantities of byproducts. The main raw materials used in the industries in such countries are fruits, vegetables, dairy products and fish.
Tropical and subtropical fruits like mango, pineapple, banana, grape, and citrus are important fruits used in processing in poor countries Schieber et al. The utilization of residues and byproducts generated in the poor regions of the world for the formulation of novel foods will directly benefit the local communities.
In Nigeria, for example, the use of mango byproducts has been suggested as the main ingredient in the diet of infants and adults since it increases the content of protein and antioxidants Abdalla et al. As shown in Figure 1 , a strategy to reduce malnutrition and hunger in developing countries is the use of food wastes and byproducts as a source of food additives or as a raw material for the feeding of animals for human consumption.
Value-added product generation can benefit infrastructure development, transportation, food processing, and packaging industries. This contributes to the reduction in waste accumulation and results in significant financial benefits. Tropical fruits, dairy, and fish are an important commercial food and crop enterprise, which plays an important role in the socio-economic development of rural and urban populations in countries in Africa, Asia, and America.
For example in Kenya, the production chain of mango and mango derived products contributes significantly to the agricultural Gross Domestic Product GDP and foreign exchange earnings Muriithi et al. Therefore, the diversification of the chain with the valorization of byproducts will generate income and create employment opportunities for residents which will directly benefit poor communities. Figure 1. Conceptual diagram of the use of food waste and byproducts in the minimization of hunger.
The depletion of renewable resources, reduction in land for cultivation, continuous growth of the world population and the over accumulation of waste are factors that justify the utilization of waste and byproducts in the food sector. Despite the wide potential of byproducts as materials for the formulation of foods, some may present low digestibility absorption due to the presence of anti-nutritional compounds such as tannins, cyanogenic glycosides, oxalates, and trypsin inhibitory substances Arogba, This highlights the need to develop novel processes to reduce these nutritional factors from food wastes.
Additionally, the Environmental Protection Agency EPA, had set a priority to use the surplus to feed the hungry people first, then animals, and finally industrial uses, composting and incineration. Proper use of food waste and byproducts as raw materials or food additives, could generate economic gains for the industry, contribute to reducing nutritional problems, would produce beneficial health effects and would reduce the environmental implications that generate mismanagement of waste.
Presently, the industries are interested in innovations so as to obtain zero waste, where the waste generated is used as raw material for new products and applications. In this context, the main goal of this review article is to present the potential of food waste and byproducts as a sustainable alternative to reduce malnutrition and hunger in developing countries.
The following examples have been chosen as being a contrasting set of materials for which much information is available and for which clear improvements and opportunities are envisaged. Mango Mangifera indica L. Mango is one of the most important fruits in the world, thanks to its delicious flavor, attractive fragrance, beautiful color, and nutritional value Ibarra et al. The production of mangos, mangosteen, and guavas for the year was 45,, million tons. India, China, Thailand, Mexico, Indonesia, and Pakistan are the main producing countries at the world level.
Asia is the main continent in mango production Mango is generally consumed as a dessert fruit, but there has been an increase in consumption of mango products such as canned, frozen, concentrates, juices, jams, mashed, dehydrated products, and minimally processed Masibo and He, ; Dussan-Sarria et al.
Seed fat has attracted great interest as it has very similar physicochemical characteristics to those of commercial cocoa butter Jahurul et al. Table 1 , presents the nutritional content of mango seeds.
The seed has a high protein content with the presence of all essential amino acids at higher levels than those referenced by the FAO as good quality protein. The seed also has high lipid content, these have typical characteristics of a vegetable butter Muchiri et al. Although antinutritional characteristics are reported Sandhu and Lim, , these can be minimized to maximize the nutritional potential of the seed. Arogba reported that mango seed flour has a potential use in food preparation, for adults in households in Nigeria, and may also be suitable for infant formulas.
Table 1. Nutritional properties of the main fruit byproducts grown in developing countries. To know in detail about the chemical characterization of mango peel, it is advisable to read a complete review article written by Serna-Cock et al. This review document will present some basic aspects of the main nutritional components and their possible applications. The mango peels have high levels of soluble dietary fiber Serna-Cock et al. Dietary fiber is an important additive for the formulation of functional foods.
As also shown in Table 1 , the dietary fiber composition of mango peel ranges from Dietary fibers are non-digestible carbohydrates present in plants and considered as an important component of the healthy human diet Juarez Garcia et al. Pineapples also contain a set of enzymes called bromelin commonly used in food production. Worldwide production of pineapple for the year was 25,, million tons. Similar to mango, Asia is the main continent producing pineapple Table 1 , presents the nutritional composition of pineapple pomace, which has a high content of total dietary fiber values However, lower soluble dietary fiber contents are also reported.
Selani et al. Mabel et al. Pineapple stem is an agricultural waste with high potential as an alternative source of starch. The extracted starch has distinctly unique properties compared to commercial rice, corn and cassava starches Nakthong et al. Banana is a fruit that is widely grown around the world; which is mostly found in places with the tropical and subtropical weather. Bananas are native to Southeast Asia and are cultivated in over countries Mohapatra et al.
This fruit belongs to the Musaceae family, with nearly species, of which only 20 varieties are used for consumption Venkateshwaran and Elayaperumal, Banana is consumed all over the world, mainly because of its low price and the fact that it can be harvested almost the entire year Juarez Garcia et al. Also, bananas lead the market of fruit import around the world with After the processing of bananas, a large amount of peel is collected and treated like garbage since it is considered as a fruit waste.
These residues represent a serious pollution problem as it is dispersed in the planting area or burned. Due to the increase in the number of banana processing industries, there is a massive increase in the accumulation of banana wastes which necessitates the development of proper strategies to reuse these residues Happi Emaga et al.
A large number of applications for these byproduct are reported in literature Bankar et al. The potential applications of banana peels depend principally on their chemical composition Pelissari et al. Ripening in bananas is an important aspect, which influences the compounds present in the peel since it has been reported that when the fruit ripens, the starch and hemicellulose content is reduced. This is believed to be due to the activity of endogenous enzymes, increasing the number of soluble sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, as well as proteins and lipids Happi Emaga et al.
Other compounds of interest in banana peel are minerals and micronutrients such as calcium, sodium, phosphorus, magnesium, iron, zinc, potassium, being the last one but the most important. In addition, banana peel contains all of the essential amino acids and vitamins Happi Emaga et al. Banana peels have also been reported to contain phytosterols Venkateshwaran and Elayaperumal, The peel contains high levels of dietary fiber, mainly insoluble dietary fiber Table 1.
It also contains sugars including glucose, galactose, Arabinose, rhamnose, and xylose Mohapatra et al. The importance of the Dietary fibers has increased in the recent years due to its health benefits an due to this the market is focused on the development of new products with high levels of fiber. It has been reported that Dietary fibers are related to the prevention and treatment of various diseases, mainly in the digestive tract, since this fiber provides an environment and conditions for the good growth of the beneficial intestinal flora Juarez Garcia et al.
The use of fibers from food wastes and byproducts gives added value to the final product and contributes to the reduction of the environmental pollution Bilba et al. Grape is a fruit which is nutritious and having an impact on the economic status of the producing countries.
These fruits are used as table grapes, raisins, juices and also used for wine production. The consumption of table grapes and wine has numerous nutritional and health benefits for humans because of the presence of antioxidant polyphenols such as resveratrol. The germplasm of the genus Vitis is variable and constitutes a valuable resource for obtaining desired traits, such as increased tolerance to pathogens and climate change through breeding programs Fortes and Pais, Grape can be consumed fresh in the form of juicy clusters, but there is a powerful industry that has grown around this fruit SIAP, According to FAO , annual global production of grapes is over Grapes are consumed as both fresh and processed products, such as wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, dried grapes, vinegar, and grape seed oil.
Out of the total production, a wastage of Grape is a fruit that has been extensively researched because of the health benefits in many respects. Grapes are an excellent source of manganese and a good source of vitamins B6, thiamine vitamin B1 , potassium, and vitamin C Kammerer et al.
In addition, grapes are one of the richest sources of bioactive compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, anthocyanins, and proanthocyanidins. These compounds are responsible for the color and smell of grapes and are found mainly in the skin of the grape.
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Primary Products. Fresh fruit. After picked, the fruits go through inspection stages, washing, waxing and packing. The cleanser used during washing may include fungicides, therefore the fruits are not sent to juice processing, since the fungicides could find their way into the juice, leaving undesirable residues. Orange juice , which can be divided into two categories:. NFC - Not-From-Concentrate Juice - This is the juice that doesn't undergo the concentration process, produced for local markets and exported as well. Secondary Products.
Niir Project Consultancy Services , Dyestuff sector is one of the core chemical industries in India. There are two types of colorants dyes and pigments. Dyes are soluble substances used to pass color to the substrate and find applications primarily in textiles and leather. Pigments are coloring materials, which are water insoluble. Pigment are usually manufactured as dry colorants and grounded into fine powder. The dyes market, meanwhile, largely depends upon the fortunes of its principal end-user, textiles, which account for about 70 percent of the total demand. Their importance has grown in almost every area of an economic activity. In the colorants market, Asia-Pacific accounts for the largest share. This region is one of the key markets for dyes and pigments production.
Fruit juice manufacturing process
Food production and processing in developing countries generate high levels of waste and byproducts, causing a negative environmental impact and significant expenses. However, these biomaterials have ample potential for generating food additives which in turn will minimize malnutrition and hunger in the developing countries where it is produced. Many of these biomaterials are a source of valuable compounds such as proteins, lipids, starch, micronutrients, bioactive compounds, and dietary fibers.
Establishing production facilities 2. Introduction 2. The site 2. Design and construction of the building 2. Equipment 2. Packaging materials. Introduction All fruit and vegetable processing operations require an hygienically designed and easily cleaned building to prevent products from becoming contaminated during processing. The two main sources of contamination are 1 insects and animals and 2 micro-organisms. Insects and animals are attracted to food buildings if foods or wastes are left lying round after production has finished. Micro-organisms can grow in food residues that are left on equipment, tables or floors which have not been properly cleaned. Micro-organisms require water to grow Section I, Introduction and wet processing therefore has an inherently greater risk of contamination than dry processing does.
EP0925727A2 - An emulsion concentrate for soft drinks - Google Patents
NCBI Bookshelf. Fermentation is biotechnology in which desirable microorganisms are used in the production of value-added products of commercial importance. Fermentation occurs in nature in any sugar-containing mash from fruit, berries, honey, or sap tapped from palms. If left exposed in a warm atmosphere, airborne yeasts act on the sugar to convert it into alcohol and carbon dioxide. The making of wines and beers uses this biotechnology under controlled conditions. Alcoholic beverages have been produced for centuries in various societies. They are often central to the most valued personal and social ceremonies of both modern and less literate societies. In such traditional ceremonies as childnaming, marriage feasts, and funerals, alcoholic beverages are often present. In Africa, maize, millet, bananas, honey, palm and bamboo saps, and many fruits are used to ferment nutrient beers and wines.
Juice is a drink made from the extraction or pressing of the natural liquid contained in fruit and vegetables. It can also refer to liquids that are flavored with concentrate or other biological food sources, such as meat or seafood , such as clam juice. Juice is commonly consumed as a beverage or used as an ingredient or flavoring in foods or other beverages, as for smoothies. Juice emerged as a popular beverage choice after the development of pasteurization methods enabled its preservation without using fermentation which is used in wine production. Fruit juice consumption on average increases with country income level. The word "juice" comes from Old French in about ; it developed from the Old French words " jus, juis, jouis ", which mean "liquid obtained by boiling herbs". Today, " au jus " refers to meat served along with its own juice, commonly as a gravy. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating sometimes referred to as cold pressed  fruit or vegetable flesh without the application of heat or solvents. For example, orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree, and tomato juice is the liquid that results from pressing the fruit of the tomato plant.
Whey, the liquid residue of cheese, casein and yoghurt production, is one of the biggest reservoirs of food protein available today. World whey output at approximately million tonnes in contains some 1. The latest research shows that whey protein is arguably the most nutritionally valuable protein available; little wonder that nutritional markets such as sports, clinical and infant nutrition are driving an unprecedented investment level in dairy production.
Electroplating is an electro deposition process for producing a dense, uniform, and adherent coating, usually of metal or alloys, upon a surface by the act of electric current. Electroplating is primarily used to change the surface properties of an object e.
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