Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table 1. The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries.
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Wheat Milling ProcessVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Cities Skylines Industries - Warehouse Tutorial
Although the Safe Food for Canadians Regulations SFCR came into force on January 15, , certain requirements are being phased in over the following 12 to 30 months. For more information, refer to the SFCR timelines. The following good manufacturing practices GMPs are intended to help dairy processors control the operational conditions within their facility, allowing for environmental conditions that are favourable to the production of safe and suitable dairy products. The premises include all elements in the building and building surroundings: building design and construction, product flow, sanitary facilities, water quality, drainage, the outside property, roadways and waste disposal.
Adequate segregation of incompatible products and activities is necessary where cross contamination may otherwise result. Examples of incompatible products and activities include raw materials and pasteurized or sterilized food products, cleaning products and food products, and waste materials or utility materials and food products.
The exterior of the facility is designed, constructed and maintained to prevent entry of contaminants and pests. This section covers all floors, walls, ceilings, stairs and elevators, utility lines and electrical boxes in the facility.
It also covers all windows, doors and openings plastic curtains, hose port, can inlet and outlet , loading facilities, lighting and ventilation. The interior structures are unlikely to have direct contact with the food produced in the facility. However, accumulations of dust and dirt and condensation may become sources of contamination.
It may be necessary to install heating, ventilation and air conditioning HVAC systems or exhaust fans if air quality is inferior or to provide specialized treatment of air. Inadequate ventilation may lead to the presence of odours, condensation or mould growth. Careful and frequent hand washing in food handling situations reduces contamination. The location, number and the condition of hand cleaning and sanitizing stations are extremely important to the maintenance of good hygienic practices.
Non processing areas include equipment cleaning and sanitizing facilities for example, Clean- out-of-place COP as well as boiler and compressor rooms, retail operations and mechanical shops, for example. Because there is no exposed product in these areas it is not essential to meet the same sanitary conditions as the food processing areas of the facility.
Refer to Water for use in the preparation of food, Ice used in the preparation of food and Culinary steam for more guidance on control measures that can prevent water, ice and culinary steam from being a source of contamination to dairy products.
Refer to Preventing water backflow for guidance on the use of appropriate backflow prevention devices. If the source of the water poses a contamination risk it may be necessary to treat the water. The water treatment method used will depend on the reason for treating the water, for example microbiological, protozoan, viruses, chemical.
Chlorine may be used as a disinfectant for well water supplies. The dose is dependent on the water flow rate, pH, temperature and chemical composition. Automatic dosing can be done by the use of a metering device. Where water is in direct contact with finished product for example, when washing cheese curds or when water is added unintentionally when flushing product post-pasteurization:.
Reuse water is water that has been recirculated or reclaimed from a processing step, including from the food components, and that after subsequent reconditioning treatment s , is reused in the same, prior, or subsequent food processing operation. Refer to Culinary steam for additional guidance. Records demonstrate the adequacy of the microbiological and chemical safety of the water and steam supply. Since air from the HVAC system unit is supplied to various parts of the facility by ducts, it is important that this air supply not be a source of contamination.
Pathogenic organisms can enter the product via a contaminated air source. Ingredients, packaging materials and other incoming materials are transported, received, inspected and stored in a manner which prevents conditions which may result in the contamination of food. Carts used for transportation of ingredients and finished products within the processing operation, as well as forklifts used in the warehouse, are subject to abuse.
Careful maintenance is needed to upkeep these pieces of equipment. This section covers all incoming material except raw milk or cream and packaging.
Milk and cream are covered under Raw product acceptability , and non-food materials are covered under Non-food chemicals. For additional guidance on specifications and supplier approval, refer to the Supplier food safety assurance program. This section covers the acceptance, receiving, sampling and monitoring of raw milk, cream and other dairy products treated as raw ingredients and applies to these products from all species for example, sheep, goat, etc.
Other incoming food ingredients are addressed in Incoming material. The receiving of raw milk and cream needs to be well controlled to minimize growth of microorganisms and toxins that could affect food safety. The storage time and temperature of raw milk and cream needs to be well controlled to minimize growth of microorganisms.
Microbial growth could produce heat stable toxins and potentially pose a hazard that would not be controlled by the pasteurization step. Thermisation is a mild form of heat treatment which can be used to extend the keeping quality of raw milk before pasteurization. Milk subjected to thermisation is still considered to be raw. Pasteurized product intended for further processing could be re-contaminated due to improper handling or poor sanitation of storage tanks.
Certain dairy products are kept at temperatures that exceed 4oC as part of their manufacturing process. For example, during tempering, drying, curing and aging. Dairy products that are returned to the facility may be a source of contamination to the facility environment, equipment and other dairy products.
Contamination can be prevented by not accepting returns, or by proper control of such products as they arrive at the facility from external sources such as retail outlets. Finished product needs to be stored and handled under conditions to prevent deterioration for example, spoilage and damage for example, control of stacking heights and forklift damage.
If there is no capacity on site to cool the finished product to 4 o C or less, the product may be transported to a public refrigerated warehouse in order to get the temperature down to an acceptable level provided this practice does not contravene Provincial regulatory requirements.
Proper control of temperature and humidity is essential in various areas of the facility. In refrigerated storage areas it is necessary to maintain humidity conditions that prevent the formation of condensation and subsequent mould growth.
Control of the conditions in the salting and curing stages of the manufacturing process will ensure even distribution of salt and optimal microbial and enzymatic activity in the ripening process. This section covers the air and inert gases that are added directly into the product or on the packaging. It covers both ambient air and compressed air sources. Air when used for agitation, air blows, drying processes and incorporation into product overrun may be a vehicle that allows pathogenic organisms to enter the product.
Poor quality air can also lead to product contaminated with particulate matter, condensate or oil. This section covers compressed air equipment that is used to operate valves and other equipment pneumatically.
This air is not intended to be in direct contact with the product. If the air is in direct contact with the product or packaging, refer to Air quality. Metal detectors need to be suitable for the specific product, associated hazard and the environmental conditions that the unit will operate in to ensure the effective removal of metals. This section covers the movement or flow of both people and equipment throughout the facility as well as the processing practices used.
To reduce the risk of contamination in processing and packaging areas, restrict or control the movement equipment between areas. With respect to equipment layout, a process flow that is straight and simple is recommended from a sanitation point of view.
Clean and appropriate clothing, good grooming and habits as well as employee health monitoring reduce the possibility of milk, milk products, containers and equipment from becoming contaminated. This section covers how ingredients for example, fruits, nuts, powders, starter cultures and packaging materials for example, glass containers, foil and plastic wrap, powder bags are handled during processing. It also covers the manual formation of packaging containers such as ice cream cartons.
This section covers the sanitation of all structures, equipment and utensils. For more guidance, refer to Cleaning and sanitation program.
This cleaning technique is used for permanent installations which are difficult or impossible to clean by other techniques. It uses a combination of physical and chemical means to remove soil from food contact surfaces. Re-contamination potential is reduced by this technique because it is a closed system. The presence of pests such as insects, rodents and birds in and around dairy establishments is unsanitary. For additional guidance on pest prevention and assessment, pest control measures and developing a pest control program, refer to Pest control.
For additional guidance on how to develop an effective recall program, refer to Recall procedure: A guide for food businesses. Implementing process controls throughout the manufacturing process help to ensure the production of safe food. The following are recommended process controls for product formulae, food additives, nutritional requirements, label accuracy, product preparation, shelf life studies, product and environmental monitoring and laboratory facilities and practices to ensure product is being manufactured as intended.
This section covers controls for product formulae, food additives, nutritional requirements and label accuracy. Formulation controls are necessary to prevent hazards which could result from excesses, inadequacies and omissions of nutrients, for example, infant formulae, fortified foods, foods for which there are nutritional claims example calorie-reduced, low sodium.
Accurate labels inform and protect segments of the population which may be allergic to certain foods. Where the development of the label is completed at a corporate office, the processing facility should verify the accuracy of the label.
Tamper evident seals on packaging should be used to ensure the security and integrity of products once they are produced and until they are purchased by the consumer. This section covers microbiological controls that are used to verify the production of safe food. Shelf life studies demonstrate that the safety and suitability of the milk product is retained throughout the shelf life of the product.
Refer to Shelf life studies for additional guidance. Environmental monitoring is a tool to verify good manufacturing practices within a facility. Persistent contamination of product contact surfaces in the processing environment is an indication of inadequate hygienic practices and may lead to finished product contamination. The potential for the growth of L. Report a problem on this page.
Corn and wheat are among the most important cereals worldwide, representing many of the calories and proteins consumed. Tortillas and tortilla-related products are among the fastest-growing segments of the food industry and represent a sizeable portion of those calories. This book will guide food scientists, product developers, and nutritionists through the fascinating science and technology behind the production of corn and wheat flour tortillas. This title is the most comprehensive English-language book of its kind. It fully describes the technology, nutritional value, and quality control measures of corn and wheat flour tortillas, tortilla chips, and related products. It accomplishes this through pages of quality text, complemented by easy-to-understand facts, figures, tables, and summaries that seamlessly guide users to an understanding of the fundamental underlying principles that optimize tortilla production and guide product development.
Good manufacturing practices: Dairy processors
Food Industry. The supply of food free from health risks to the population is actually a challenge. In fact, contaminated food may cause serious infections and jeopardize the health of the population. Owing to their frequency, food-caused infections are a very grave issue to public health. They may cause hazards ranging from a simple intestine discomfort to cases that are more serious, such as neurological disorders and death, because of the high number of microorganisms involved in a simple epidemic event. Fresh or processed animal-derived food may harbor several pathogenic microorganisms that cause physiological disorders in people who consume them.
Wheat and grain
The Encyclopedia of Food Grains is an in-depth and authoritative reference covering all areas of grain science. Coverage includes everything from the genetics of grains to the commercial, economic and social aspects of this important food source. Also covered are the biology and chemistry of grains, the applied aspects of grain production and the processing of grains into various food and beverage products. With the paramount role of cereals as a global food source, this Encyclopedia is sure to become the standard reference work in the field of science.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Structural vs. Roll-Formed Racking Systems
Without water, many companies and the products they provide would fail to exist. Water use is a fundamental commodity for nearly every step of the manufacturing and production processes around the world. Whether it's deionised water for electronics and pharmaceutical sectors, or softened water for boiler feed applications, water is necessary and comes embedded in the footprint of virtually item created on the planet. Yet, at the same time, many global companies have manufacturing facilities operating in water scarce parts of the world, with over two thirds of companies now reporting exposure to water risks. This article is designed to provide an essential guide to everything you need to know about industrial water and wastewater. Manufacturing and other industries use water during the production process for either creating their products or cooling equipment used in creating their products. According to the United States Geological Survey USGS , industrial water is used for fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product. Industrial water and wastewater is a by-product of industrial or commercial activities.
Good manufacturing practices: Dairy processors
Jensen, J. Graham and Donald L. Graham, which were revised by Donald L.
Microbial and bacterial contamination of wheat flour has seldom been a concern due to the fact that it has low water activity level. Water activity Aw refers to the availability of water in a food or beverage and represents the amount of water that is available to microorganisms. Pure water has an Aw of 1. A water activity level of greater than 0. Wheat flour generally has an Aw level of 0. The concern with wheat flour is that bacteria can be carried or stored and emerge from dormancy when the flour is further processed into a food product. In the milling process, prevention and reduction of microbial or bacterial contamination are good alternatives with elimination options growing in acceptance, but adding significant cost to production. Prevention While most of the food safety stories in the media are linked to E. These kernels are usually infected by Fusarium head blight FHB or scab prior to harvest while in the field.
A food production wiki for public health professionals
Production Editor Rebecca Sherratt rebeccas perendale. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. More information can be found at www. From a palatability enhancer to a source of nutrients and functional ingredients, yeast and yeast derivative products are versatile and natural ingredients to keep in mind when formulating food for pets. Micronutrient deficiency affects, globally, over 2. Maintaining grain quality from grain-infesting insects is a never-ending challenge. The fumigation of bulk commodities, such as grains, has been performed for a century and the requirements for such treatments are increasing. The grain industry worldwide is highly dependant on fumigants for controlling stored grain pests, which cause about percent of losses every year.
Wheat and grain
Our processes and equipment are therefore designed to produce high-quality products and maximum yields. If you increase yields by even a fraction, it goes straight to your bottom line. We create custom-made plants and processes to fit your resources and market trends. We can also support you throughout the entire lifecycle of your mill. We are based in countries, with a network of around service centers. We offer training, maintenance, spare parts and back-up. We can design and install your plant or help with repairs on site. We have worked in milling for more than years. We understand the trends worldwide and can work closely with you to create solutions for your market. We are permanently upgrading our milling machines, processes, automation and digital services — to help increase your yields, food safety and efficiency.
Industrial water: Our essential guide to pollution, treatment & solutions
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