Without water, many companies and the products they provide would fail to exist. Water use is a fundamental commodity for nearly every step of the manufacturing and production processes around the world. Whether it's deionised water for electronics and pharmaceutical sectors, or softened water for boiler feed applications, water is necessary and comes embedded in the footprint of virtually item created on the planet. Yet, at the same time, many global companies have manufacturing facilities operating in water scarce parts of the world, with over two thirds of companies now reporting exposure to water risks.
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- About Food Science and Technology
- Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry
- Food industry
- Premix Feed
- The GLOBALG.A.P. Compound Feed Manufacturing Standard (CFM)
- Current Trends in Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing
- Regulatory requirements: Preventive controls
- Industrial water: Our essential guide to pollution, treatment & solutions
- Solutions for sustainable animal feed production
About Food Science and TechnologyVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: World Amazing Automatic Food Processing Machines Modern Food Processing Technology
Without water, many companies and the products they provide would fail to exist. Water use is a fundamental commodity for nearly every step of the manufacturing and production processes around the world. Whether it's deionised water for electronics and pharmaceutical sectors, or softened water for boiler feed applications, water is necessary and comes embedded in the footprint of virtually item created on the planet.
Yet, at the same time, many global companies have manufacturing facilities operating in water scarce parts of the world, with over two thirds of companies now reporting exposure to water risks.
This article is designed to provide an essential guide to everything you need to know about industrial water and wastewater. Manufacturing and other industries use water during the production process for either creating their products or cooling equipment used in creating their products. According to the United States Geological Survey USGS , industrial water is used for fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product.
Industrial water and wastewater is a by-product of industrial or commercial activities. Whether it's the food we eat or the products we consume, water is required for nearly every step of production across a multitude of different industries.
The resulting wastewater must be carefully managed. Depending on the product being manufactured and the raw water quality in the region, different levels of treatment technologies will be needed. For example, for medical, electronics manufacturing and food processing, deionized water is an essential ingredient. Called ultra pure water EUP , this has almost all of the minerals, dissolved gas and dirt particles removed from the water which could otherwise interfere with the manufacturing of precise and sensitive products, such as circuit boards.
Meanwhile, feed water is used in boilers and cooling towers to ensure efficiency, maximise boiler and system life, reduce maintenance costs and maintain levels of operational performance. Industries that have a high usage of water and need for treatment include: brewery and carbonated beverage water; dairy industries; sugar mills and refineries; textile manufacturing; pulp and paper mills; oil and gas; the automotive and aircraft industries and many others.
As many industrial facilities use freshwater to carry away waste from the plant and into rivers, lakes and oceans, there is a responsibility to ensure pollutants are removed and minimised. Given the heavy manufacturing taking place, industrial water can contain a multitude of pollutants, including: lead, mercury, nitrates, phosphates, sulphur, oils and petrochemicals. Heavy water using industries can include food, paper, chemicals, refined petroleum, or primary metals.
Below is a list of how water is used within several different industries. Water is an essential component for the manufacturing of semiconductors and chips which are used everyday in computers, cell phones and automobiles. Ultrapure water is used throughout the process, including to remove impurities from silicon wafers. As a result, semiconductor producers are focusing on ways to recycle, reuse and reduce the amount of water needed for operations.
One notable case study is US firm Intel, which is creating its biggest water-reuse development as part of its new D1X factory in Hillsboro. Cooling systems are used to remove heat from processes or equipment. Heat removed from one medium is transferred to another medium, or process fluid, which most often is water. According to the SUEZ Water Technologies Handbook, the driving force for the transfer of heat is the difference in temperature between the two media, which in most cooling systems, is in the range of degrees F.
Many of the properties of water, including the behaviour of the contaminants it contains, are affected by temperature. As a result, the tendency of a system to corrode, scale, or support microbiological growth is also affected by water temperature. Water is a raw material used and produced in high quantities in the oil industry, from extraction activities through to refineries and petrochemicals.
Uses include: injection water, production water, process water, wastewater, rainwater, cooling water, tank cleaning water, and others. Despite digitalisation prompting a move away from printed products, the pulp and paper sector remains one of the largest users of industrial process water in the US and the second largest in Europe.
A high quantity of water consumed in the pulp and paper industry is used only for processing, thus, leading to the generation of large volumes of contaminated wastewater. As well as consuming vast quantities of fresh water for manufacturing, industries also produce wastewater often laced with waste by-products used during the process. Depending on the country and region, there are differing levels of regulations governing what can and cannot be discharged to the local waterways.
The following are some examples of worst case water pollution, although should not be read as a blanket statement for that entire industry globally. Despite the high water usage of textile production plants, it is the wastewater being discharged — which can contain a cocktail of chemicals — that is equally a cause for concern.
This wastewater can contain lead, phthalates, organochlorines and other chemicals that when disposed of into water bodies that will eventually reach water bodies for consumption, and can cause severe health problems and diseases in human beings. However, potential environmental hazards associated with refineries have caused increased concern for communities, according to the EPA.
The process of oil refining involves a series of steps that includes separation and blending of petroleum products. Refineries are a potential major contributors to ground water and surface water contamination. Some refineries use deep-injection wells to dispose of wastewater generated inside the plants, and some of these wastes end up in aquifers and groundwater.
Wastewater in refineries may be highly contaminated given the number of sources it can come into contact with during the refinery process such as equipment leaks and spills and the desalting of crude oil. Taken together, land-based river and urban runoff sources constitute over half of the petroleum pollution introduced to North American coastal waters due to human activity, and 20 percent of the petroleum pollution introduced to ocean waters worldwide.
When wastewater from these sources enters the marine environment it is usually by means of an estuary, an area where freshwater from land mixes with seawater. Coal-fired power plants have been responsible for toxic metals, such as arsenic, boron and mercury, entering waterways, according to the Sierra Club.
It was in when the EPA issues a rule to halt discharges in a move that was estimated to halt the release of 1. However, under the Trump administration this regulation has been weakened, according to Scientific American. There are many uses of water for industry. Raw water entering an industrial plant often needs treatment to meet tight quality specifications. Meanwhile, used water also needs treatment to make it fit for reuse or disposal.
Raw water treatment systems are used to pre-treat and optimize source water, usually with the aim to improve production efficiency and process performance for particular applications. Often, raw water treatment is focused on protecting downstream equipment from scaling, fouling, corrosion, and other forms of damage or premature wear due to contaminants present in the source water.
Meanwhile, boiler feed water treatment systems are used to protect boiler unit components from damage from certain contaminants present in makeup feeds. These could include dissolved solids, suspended solids and inorganic matter such as iron, copper, calcium, magnesium, aluminium and dissolved gases.
An effective boiler feed water treatment system works by both removing harmful impurities prior to entering the boiler as well as controlling the acidity and conductivity of the water. Within the industrial water context, a wastewater treatment system is used to treat waste streams into an effluent that can either be reused within the operation or safely discharged to the environment.
Treatment system complexity will largely depend upon the compliance regulations impacting the plant and the waste stream composition. However, in many operations the following steps represent the common technologies you can expect to see: clarification; disinfection; softening and distribution.
Industrial water quality requirements will vary considerably depending on the application, region and local governance.
Even within these segments, water quality will vary between foods — for example dairy to confectionary, and drinks, from soft beverages to alcoholic beverages. Coupled with local regulations and globally it is a complicated mixture of quality requirements. However, water in the food industry should meet the requirements of local standards for safe drinking water or meet the requirements of the World Health Organisation WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality.
Even under ultrapure water classification, there can be five grades of pure water available, each defined by various standards and conventions. Each grade of pure water is used in a number of applications, that include:. A number of industrial water solutions are available and the choice will be governed by several factors: the raw water quality in the region, regional regulations governing the facility, the type of product being manufactured and purity of water needed, among many others.
Often water solutions used for municipal water treatment, such as membranes, are used for industrial applications as well. Furthermore, industrial water treatment solutions tend to be move diverse than municipal alternatives due to the wider range of pollutants, their concentrations and temporal variability in industrial effluents. Below we have listed five industrial water solutions and processes. Large amounts of organic waste matter are generated at industrial sites, including pulp and paper mills, which can be converted to renewable energy in the form of methane.
Anaerobic digestion is the process by which organic matter is broken down in the absence of oxygen, in a sealed, oxygen-free tank called an anaerobic digester.
Anaerobic treatment of mill wastewater is widely accepted but is only applied to a few selected streams. Deionization DI is the removal of all ionized minerals and salts from a solution through the process of ion exchange. Because most non-particulate water impurities are dissolved salts, deionization produces a high purity water that is generally similar to distilled water.
Deionization filters operate by exchanging positive hydrogen and negative hydroxide molecules for the positive and negative contaminant molecules in the water. Positive chemicals like sodium, calcium, iron, and copper change places with the hydrogen molecules, and negative chemicals like iodine, chloride and sulfate change places with the hydroxide molecules.
This process is typically done by two ionized resin beds that are opposite in charges: cationic negative resin and anionic positive resin. Positively charged ions are removed from the solution by the cation resin in exchange for a chemically equivalent amount of hydrogen ions. Negatively charged ions are removed by the anion resin in exchange for a chemically equivalent amount of hydroxide ions.
The hydrogen and hydroxide ions introduced in this process unite to form pure water molecules. Membrane technology has a significant part to play in the production of all grades of pure water.
Depending on the feed water available, additional membrane technologies may be incorporated as pre-treatment technologies. Ultra filtration UF or microfiltration MF technology can be effectively used as a pre-treatment for reverse osmosis RO depending on the nature and variability of the feed supply to the water treatment system.
Intel takes byte out of water risk with reuse project. Spain and China continue as water reuse heavyweights. Membranes supercharged using enzyme technology. Share your water technology stories with us Do you have an innovation, research results or an other interesting topic you would like to share with the international water technology industry? The Aquatech website and social media channels are a great platform to showcase your stories!
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These requirements establish the expected food safety outcomes to help prevent food safety hazards and reduce the likelihood of contaminated food entering the Canadian market place. In addition, there are inherent animal welfare risks to food animals during their handling and slaughter. These preventive controls establish the outcomes for preventing or eliminating avoidable suffering, injury, or death other than by slaughter or humane killing of the food animal. Additional information on written Preventive control plans can be found in the guidance material Regulatory requirements: Preventive control plans. If you hold a licence to manufacture , process , treat , preserve , grade , package or label food , you are required to comply with the following SFCR requirements as may be applicable to your food business:.
Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry
GFSI recognition offers a passport to the global market, both for the recognised CPOs certification programme owners and the companies that they certify. The GFSI Benchmarking Requirements were first created in by a group of retailers motivated by the necessity of harmonising food safety standards across the global supply chain. These requirements are frequently updated with input from food safety experts around the world to keep up to date with food safety trends. They do not constitute a food safety standard in their own right, nor can food businesses be audited or certified against them.
Our animal feed solutions help you produce top quality feed and to make economical use of your raw materials and energy. As a technology partner with long-lasting experience in the industry, we support you in every aspect of the production of reliable animal feed. We work closely with you to keep you one step ahead. Our solutions come in a modular design so you can customize them to match your production process. We also offer services, maintenance, repairs, automation, technology support and training. These are all designed to deliver high quality products and cost-effective processes. Our plants and equipment also meet the most stringent sanitation standards. We work with you and your team to look at the critical issues that affect your feed quality, plant efficiency and profitability. Based on this and our many years of experience, we then create a tailored solution for your animal feed production.
To help consumers make informed decisions about the food they eat, IFT has developed IFT Food Facts to provide consumers with news they can use in their daily lives. Food research is the careful, systematic study, investigation, and compilation of information about foods and their components. What is Food Manufacturing?
Goods and services. Workers in the food manufacturing industry link farmers and other agricultural producers with consumers. They do this by processing raw fruits, vegetables, grains, meats, and dairy products into finished goods ready for the grocer or wholesaler to sell to households, restaurants, or institutional food services. Food manufacturing workers perform tasks as varied as the many foods we eat. For example, they slaughter, dress, and cut meat or poultry; process milk, cheese, and other dairy products; can and preserve fruits, vegetables, and frozen specialties; manufacture flour, cereal, pet foods, and other grain mill products; make bread, cookies, cakes, and other bakery products; manufacture sugar and candy and other confectionery products; process shortening, margarine, and other fats and oils; and prepare packaged seafood, coffee, potato and corn chips, and peanut butter. Although this list is long, it is not exhaustive. Food manufacturing workers also play a part in delivering numerous other food products to our tables. Quality control and quality assurance are vital to this industry. The U.
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The GLOBALG.A.P. Compound Feed Manufacturing Standard (CFM)
The food industry is a complex, global collective of diverse businesses that supplies most of the food consumed by the world's population. It is challenging to find an inclusive way to cover all aspects of food production and sale. Most food produced for the food industry comes from commodity crops using conventional agricultural practices. Agriculture is the process of producing food, feeding products, fiber and other desired products by the cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals livestock. The practice of agriculture is also known as " farming ". Scientists, inventors, and others devoted to improving farming methods and implements are also said to be engaged in agriculture. Agronomy is the science and technology of producing and using plants for food, fuel, fibre, and land reclamation. Agronomy encompasses work in the areas of plant genetics , plant physiology , meteorology , and soil science. Agronomy is the application of a combination of sciences. Agronomists today are involved with many issues including producing food, creating healthier food, managing environmental impact of agriculture, and extracting energy from plants.
Current Trends in Green Technologies in Food Production and Processing
Finding a balance between food supply and demand in a manner that is sustainable and which ensures the long-term survival of the human species will be one of the most important challenges for humankind in the coming decades. Global population growth in the last several centuries with the attendant demands resulting from industrialization has made the need for food production and processing an important issue. This need is expected to increase in the next half century when the population of the world exceeds 9 billion.
Regulatory requirements: Preventive controls
The use of enzymes or microorganisms in food preparations is an age-old process. With the advancement of technology, novel enzymes with wide range of applications and specificity have been developed and new application areas are still being explored. Microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi and their enzymes are widely used in several food preparations for improving the taste and texture and they offer huge economic benefits to industries. Microbial enzymes are the preferred source to plants or animals due to several advantages such as easy, cost-effective and consistent production.
Industrial water: Our essential guide to pollution, treatment & solutions
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Solutions for sustainable animal feed production
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