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Composites are classified according to their matrix phase. Materials within these categories are often called "advanced" if they combine the properties of high strength and high stiffness, low weight, corrosion resistance, and in some cases special electrical properties. This combination of properties makes advanced composites very attractive for aircraft and aerospace structural parts. This chapter deals with a segment of the polymer composite industry known as advanced polymer matrix composites, or advanced composites.
Since the reinforced plastics, or polymer matrix composite industry is much larger than the subject of this chapter, the term "advanced composites" is used here to define this special segment of the industry.
Information on this industry has been developed for use by OSHA field personnel to help them understand this new and growing technology. Advanced composites have been identified as an important growth sector in U. This identification has led to more use of these materials in existing facilities as well as an increase in the number of advanced composites manufacturing locations.
Field staff may expect to encounter composites more frequently in the course of their assignments. At the same time, much of the technology is new and not presented formally in secondary or undergraduate education. Information is presented here on the technology as practiced in current operations.
The technology of advanced composites manufacture is continually evolving, and field personnel will learn here what to expect in these processing facilities in the way of materials handled, manufacturing methods, machinery, potential worker exposures, and other relevant health and safety information.
The information presented necessarily makes reference to industrial hygiene and safe work practices, but this manual is not intended to provide comprehensive guidelines for assessing compliance with regulations. Much of the terminology used in this manual is peculiar to the composites industry, and for this reason a glossary of terms has been provided in Appendix III Polymer-matrix composites manufacturing is a multibillion dollar industry in the U.
Composite products range from skateboards to components of the space shuttle. The industry can be generally divided into two basic segments, industrial composites and advanced composites. Several of the composites manufacturing processes are common to both segments.
The two basic segments are described below. The industrial composites industry has been in place for over 40 years in the U. This large industry utilizes various resin systems including polyester, epoxy, and other specialty resins. These materials, along with a catalyst or curing agent and some type of fiber reinforcement typically glass fibers are used in the production of a wide spectrum of industrial components and consumer goods: boats, piping, auto bodies, and a variety of other parts and components.
The feature common to all composite processes is the combining of a resin, a curing agent, some type of reinforcing fiber, and in some cases a solvent. Typically, heat and pressure are used to shape and "cure" the mixture into a finished part. In composites, the resin acts to hold the fibers together and protect them, and to transfer the load to the fibers in the fabricated composite part. The curing agent, also known as hardener, acts as a catalyst and helps in curing the resin to a hard plastic.
The reinforcing fiber imparts strength and other required properties to the composite. Solvents may serve three purposes:. Diagrams of the major processes used in the advanced composites industry are provided in Section A of this chapter. The processes vary widely in type of equipment and potential worker exposure. Several of the processes are automated; however, some are manual and require worker contact with the part during manufacture.
The basic process types are described below. The advanced composite processes are discussed in more detail in Section V of this chapter. Seven manufacturing processes are covered, along with two preliminary processes and two finishing processes.
The number and variety of processes should give some indication of the wide spectrum of workplaces likely to be encountered by field personnel. Potential worker exposure obviously will also vary widely, depending on the size and type of process being used. Since the advanced composite industry is relatively new and still developing, other processes may be developing or changing to meet new performance requirements. Advanced composites exhibit desirable physical and chemical properties that include light weight coupled with high stiffness and strength along the direction of the reinforcing fiber, dimensional stability, temperature and chemical resistance, flex performance, and relatively easy processing.
Advanced composites are replacing metal components in many uses, particularly in the aerospace industry. The resin systems used to manufacture advanced composites are of two basic types: thermosetting and thermoplastic.
Thermosetting resins predominate today, while thermoplastics have only a minor role in advanced composites manufacture. Thermoplastics currently represent a relatively small part of the PMC industry.
They are typically supplied as nonreactive solids no chemical reaction occurs during processing and require only heat and pressure to form the finished part. Unlike the thermosets, the thermoplastics can usually be reheated and reformed into another shape, if desired. Several solvents may be used in any one composite process.
One or more may be introduced as part of the resin or curing agent, while another may be a part of the manufacturing process. Still another may be used for cleanup. Thus the hazard information for all products used in the process must be considered when evaluating potential exposures. Composite residues are often difficult to clean from operation equipment and molds.
Various solvents have been used for cleaning, with varying degrees of success. Solvents in the workplace may be found in several areas:. A brief description of each process is given, followed by a basic diagram. Resin formulation consists of mixing epoxy or other resins with other ingredients to achieve desired performance parameters.
These ingredients may be curing agents, accelerators, reactive diluents, pigments, etc. Prepregging involves the application of formulated resin products, in solution or molten form, to a reinforcement such as carbon, fiberglass or aramid fiber or cloth. The reinforcement is saturated by dipping through the liquid resin solution form, see Figure III or by being impregnated through heat and pressure hot melt form, see Figure III In the filament wet winding process, continuous fiber reinforcement materials are drawn through a container of resin mixture Figure III and formed onto a rotating mandrel to achieve the desired shape.
After winding, the part is cured in an oven. A prepreg product is laid down and formed to the desired shape Figure III Several layers may be required.
After forming, the lay-up assembly is moved to an autoclave for cure under heat, vacuum and pressure. In this process, the prepreg tape material is fed through an automated tape application machine robot. The tape is applied across the surface of a mold in multiple layers by the preprogrammed robot Figure III Resin transfer molding is used when parts with two smooth surfaces are required or when a low-pressure molding process is advantageous.
Fiber reinforcement fabric or mat is laid by hand into a mold and resin mixture is poured or injected into the mold cavity. The part is then cured under heat and pressure Figure III In the pultrusion process, continuous roving strands are pulled from a creel through a strand-tensioning device into a resin bath.
The coated strands are then passed through a heated die where curing occurs. The continuous cured part, usually a rod or similar shape, is then cut to the desired length Figure III One of the older plastics processes, injection molding is also the most closed process.
It is not normally used in PMC processes due to fiber damage in the plasticating barrel. Thermoplastic granules are fed via a hopper into a screw-like plasticating barrel where melting occurs Figure III The melted plastic is injected into a heated mold where the part is formed. This process is often fully automated. Most parts made by hand lay-up or automated tape lay-up must be cured by a combination of heat, pressure, vacuum, and inert atmosphere.
To achieve proper cure, the part is placed into a plastic bag inside an autoclave Figure III A vacuum is applied to the bag to remove air and volatile products. Heat and pressure are applied for curing. Usually an inert atmosphere is provided inside the autoclave through the introduction of nitrogen or carbon dioxide.
Exotherms may occur if the curing step is not done properly. This may involve drilling, sanding, grinding, or other manual touch-up work. These processes vary widely, depending on the size of the finished part and the amount of finishing work required.
Repair of damaged PMC parts is frequently required. The process may consist of several steps including cutting out of the damaged material, depainting of the surface to be repaired, patching and sanding of the damaged area, and repainting of the repaired area.
Potential health hazards associated with the use of advanced composites Table III can be controlled through the implementation of an effective industrial hygiene program.
Use of safe work practices, engineering controls, and proper personal protective equipment depends upon an appreciation of health hazard information for a safe work environment. High molecular weight is generally associated with decreased volatility. In an epoxy system, the resin components have very low vapor pressures and they are not present as a volatilized airborne hazard. Most of the reinforcing materials used in the industry have the potential to cause eye, skin, and upper respiratory tract irritation as a result of the mechanical-irritant properties of the fibers.
The potential synergism has not been clearly defined. The chemical irritation caused by resins can compound the mechanical irritation caused by the fibers. However, the PAN-based carbon fibers are the predominant form in use today. It is important to ascertain which type of carbon-fiber precursor is used in order to evaluate the hazards.
Pitch-based carbon fibers may be associated with an increased risk of skin cancer, although the evidence is weak. PAN-based carbon fibers did not cause tumors when the same test was conducted.
Standard mutagenicity tests conducted on PAN-based carbon fibers were negative. The principal hazards of carbon-fiber handling are mechanical irritation and abrasion similar to that of glass fibers.
Hemp is a distinct variety of the plant species Cannabis sativa L. The plant consists of an inner layer called the pith surrounded by woody core fiber, which is often referred as hurds. Bast fibers form the outer layer. The primary bast fiber is attached to the core fiber by pectin—a glue-like substance. The primary fibers are used for textiles, cordage, and fine paper products.
United States. Bureau of Mines. Mining and quarrying trends in the metals and industrial minerals industries by Donald P Mickelsen. Abrasive materials by Gordon T Austin. Antimony by James F Carlin Jr. Boron by Phyllis A Lyday. Bromine by Phyllis A Lyday.
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Introduction 1 II. Background and Overview 2 III. Applicability 3 IV. Process Description 5 B. Vapor Suppressed Resins and Gel Coats 9 3. Non-atomizing Resin Application 10 4. Closed Molding 11 5.
Composites offer numerous advantages over conventional building materials. One advantage that might not be obvious is the ease and durability of repairs. Fear not, composite parts are often easier to repair than parts made from traditional materials. In this article we will provide a basic understanding of composite repairs, as well as detailed steps and considerations to follow for both structural and cosmetic repairs.
Also called graphite fiber or carbon graphite, carbon fiber consists of very thin strands of the element carbon. These fibers have high tensile strength and are extremely strong for their size. In fact, one form of carbon fiber—the carbon nanotube —is considered the strongest material available. Carbon fiber applications include construction, engineering, aerospace, high-performance vehicles, sporting equipment, and musical instruments. In the field of energy, carbon fiber is used in the production of windmill blades, natural gas storage, and fuel cells for transportation. In the aircraft industry, it has applications in both military and commercial aircraft, as well as unmanned aerial vehicles. For oil exploration, it's used in the manufacture of deepwater drilling platforms and pipes. Carbon fiber is made from organic polymers, which consist of long strings of molecules held together by carbon atoms. Gases, liquids, and other materials used in the manufacturing process create specific effects, qualities, and grades of carbon fiber. Carbon fiber manufacturers use proprietary formulas and combinations of raw materials for the materials they produce and in general, they treat these specific formulations as trade secrets. The highest grade carbon fiber with the most efficient modulus a constant or coefficient used to expresses a numerical degree to which a substance possesses a particular property, such as elasticity properties are used in demanding applications such as aerospace.
How Is Carbon Fiber Made?
Glass fiber has roughly comparable mechanical properties to other fibers such as polymers and carbon fibre. Although not as strong or as rigid as carbon fiber, it is much cheaper and significantly less brittle when used in composites. Glass fibers are therefore used as a reinforcing material for many polymer products; to form a very strong and r Glass fibers are therefore used as a reinforcing material for many polymer products; to form a very strong and relatively lightweight fibre-reinforced FRP composite material called glass-reinforced plastic GRP , also popularly known as "fiberglass". This structural material product contains little or no air or gas, is more dense, and is a much poorer thermal insulator than is glass wool. Our glass surface veil is suitable for a broad range of applications and is ideal for use in composites. High quality aesthetic silionne glass tape for high quality applications. Excellent drapability even in complex angles and great transparency once impregnated with clear resins. Compatible with all types of thermosetting resins: epoxy, urethane-acrylate, polyester and vinyl ester.
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Fibre-reinforced plastic FRP also called fiber-reinforced polymer , or fiber-reinforced plastic is a composite material made of a polymer matrix reinforced with fibres. The fibres are usually glass in fibreglass , carbon in carbon fiber reinforced polymer , aramid , or basalt. Rarely, other fibres such as paper, wood, or asbestos have been used. The polymer is usually an epoxy , vinyl ester , or polyester thermosetting plastic , though phenol formaldehyde resins are still in use. FRPs are commonly used in the aerospace, automotive, marine, and construction industries. They are commonly found in ballistic armor as well. A polymer is generally manufactured by step-growth polymerization or addition polymerization. When combined with various agents to enhance or in any way alter the material properties of polymers, the result is referred to as a plastic.
Mercedes-Benz to begin 3D printing truck spare parts
A For purposes of this rule, all purchases of tangible personal property are taxable, except those in which the purpose of the consumer is to incorporate the thing transferred as a material or a part into tangible personal property to be produced for sale by manufacturing, assembling, processing, or refining or to use the thing transferred, as described in section This means that a person who buys tangible personal property and will make it a part or constituent of something that is being manufactured for sale, or buys something that is used in a manufacturing operation, does not have to pay sales or use tax on the thing purchased. Tangible personal property purchased by a manufacturer as a component or constituent of a product to be manufactured for sale is excepted from sales and use tax.
The Ultimate Fiberglass Repair Guide
Fiberglass American English , or fibreglass Commonwealth English is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber. The fibers may be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet called a chopped strand mat , or woven into a fabric.
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