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Storage product units and their components for emergency rescue operations

Storage product units and their components for emergency rescue operations

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Intervention to address disasters has evolved through time into a complex policy subsystem, and disaster policy is implemented through a set of functions known as emergency management and response. Modern approaches to emergency management and response involve multidimensional efforts to reduce our vulnerability to hazards; to diminish the impact of disasters; and to prepare for, respond to, and recover from those that occur.

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Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Intervention to address disasters has evolved through time into a complex policy subsystem, and disaster policy is implemented through a set of functions known as emergency management and response. Modern approaches to emergency management and response involve multidimensional efforts to reduce our vulnerability to hazards; to diminish the impact of disasters; and to prepare for, respond to, and recover from those that occur.

These responsibilities present formidable challenges for governments because of the extraordinary demands disaster events impose on the decision-making systems and service delivery infrastructure of the communities they affect. Moreover, by definition an event constitutes a disaster if it exceeds the capacity of the government or governments in whose jurisdiction it occurs. Dealing with disaster therefore requires outside resources.

In the context of a federally structured government, when the capacities of government jurisdictions at lower levels are overwhelmed, higher levels are called upon to assist, by either supporting or supplanting the activities of the subordinate jurisdictions.

Likewise, assets and capabilities in the corporate and nongovernmental sectors may be brought to bear. As a result, emergency management and response are intrinsically intergovernmental, cross-sector policy implementation challenges. Also, since disasters dramatically affect our physical, social, and economic geography, geospatial requirements and capabilities are embedded throughout this complex system.

This chapter describes the key characteristics of disasters and the conventional phased approach to their management, with particular attention to geospatial needs and functions. There are many actions undertaken by participants in disaster management that support this goal both pre-disaster to forestall or reduce potential damage and post-disaster to recover from actual damage , and ideally these activities would reduce the potential effects of a disaster to the point of elimination.

Yet the very nature of disasters makes this ideal unachievable. There are five major characteristics of disasters that make them hard to overcome for a more detailed explanation, see Donahue and Joyce, ; Waugh, :. Disasters are large, rapid-onset incidents relative to the size and resources of an affected jurisdiction.

They may also directly impact the resources and personnel available to respond. If pre-incident data are available, geospatial analysis can provide important insight into the nature and extent of changes wrought by disasters. Disasters are uncertain with respect to both their occurrences and their outcomes. This uncertainty arises because hazards that present a threat of disaster are hard to identify, the causal relationship between hazards and disaster events is poorly understood, and risks are hard to measure—that is, it is difficult to specify what kind of damage is possible, how much damage is possible, and how likely it is that a given type and severity of damage will occur.

Geospatial models can help predict the locations, footprints, times, and durations of events, and the damage they may cause, so that jurisdictions can better prepare for them. Risks and benefits are difficult to assess and compare.

Disasters present emergency planners, emergency managers, and policy makers with countervailing pressures. On the one hand, it is important to minimize the exposure of populations and infrastructure to hazards; on the other, people want to build and live in scenic, but hazard-prone, areas and often oppose government regulation. Further, how should the various levels of government address the balance between providing relief to the victims of disasters and the need or desire to avoid encouraging risk-accepting behavior; also, to what extent should the costs of such behavior be shifted from those who engage in this behavior to the larger population?

An important component of this issue is the accuracy of risk assessment. Geospatial data and tools are invaluable in making the necessary assessments of the geographic distribution of risk and in estimating the quality of each assessment.

Disasters are dynamic events. Disasters evolve as they progress, and they change in response to human actions and natural forces. This makes it imperative that response strategies be flexible and argues for the value of analysis in helping responders understand and adapt to the changing conditions they face.

Managing these phenomena can thus be a highly technical endeavor requiring specialized expertise for both policy development and policy implementation. In particular, geospatial data and tools can help incident managers to visualize the event over time, track the activities of responders, and predict the outcomes of various courses of action. Disasters are relatively rare. Most communities experience few, if any, disasters during the average time in office of a political official or the average time of residence of a citizen.

Thus, many communities are unlikely to have recent experience with disasters, and governments may feel little imperative to build their disaster-management capacity, even if the hazards are real and the risks formidable Waugh, More obvious and immediately pressing public service concerns readily displace disaster preparedness as a priority. Specialized capabilities, such as geospatial data and tools, are especially vulnerable to budget cuts and resource reallocation.

These inherent qualities of disasters leave governments in a quandary about what to do to manage them. More specifically, the magnitude, scope, uncertainty, dynamism, and infrequency of disasters give rise to some important questions:. How can we increase the resilience of communities to disasters— for example, by adding levees, raising the elevation of the living floor in homes, or imposing zoning regulations?

How can we reduce the impact of disaster events—for example, through more effective warning systems or better evacuation plans?

How can we most effectively provide assistance to those who have been affected—through development of a common operating pic-. Thus, we face both policy issues and practical challenges as we work to reduce the risk to which our populations are exposed and to protect people and infrastructure. Almost every emergency preparedness and response challenge has important geospatial aspects, and effective emergency management thus requires adroit use of geospatial data and tools.

To address these and other issues and challenges, the emergency services professions have specified a host of activities aimed at assuaging the losses that disasters inflict. The degree to which these activities have been identified, assigned to responsible parties, and coordinated has evolved over time into a broad framework first defined in a National Governors Association report on its study of emergency preparedness National Governors Association, This approach, known as Comprehensive Emergency Management, specifies four phases of modern disaster management: preparedness, response, recovery, and mitigation.

Each of these phases levies particular demands on emergency managers and responders, and each can be informed and improved by the application of geospatial data and tools. These phases follow one another in a continuous cycle, with a disaster event occurring between the preparedness and the response phases, as shown in Figure 3.

For additional explanation of the emergency management process, see Waugh and Haddow and Bullock Preparedness involves activities undertaken in the short term before disaster strikes that enhance the readiness of organizations and communities to respond effectively. Preparedness actions shorten the time required for the subsequent response phase and potentially speed recovery as well. During this phase, hazards can be identified and plans developed to address response and recovery requirements.

Disaster plans are often developed by individual agencies, but one challenge of disasters is that they demand action from agencies and organizations that may not work closely together from day to day.

Thus, plans are much more effective when developed collectively by all agencies that will be responding so that resources and responsibilities are coordinated in advance.

Also during the preparedness phase, training and exercises may be conducted to help prepare responders for real events. These vary from conceptual discussions to more formalized tabletop exercises TTXs , during which neither people nor equipment is moved, to field exercises FXs , which simu-. As with planning, training and exercises may be conducted by agencies in isolation, but they are more powerful when conducted jointly so that interfaces can be resolved.

Perhaps the most important result of joint planning and exercising is the relationships developed between those who will be involved in response. In the best instances, these processes develop trust among those who will be called upon to work together during an event.

From the geospatial perspective, preparedness objectives include identifying data requirements, developing data sets, and sharing data across agencies. This includes activities as basic as developing framework data and foundation data on infrastructure, hazards and risks, location of assets that are of use for response and recovery sand bags, generators, shelters, medical resources, heavy equipment, breathing apparatus, chemical spill response units, etc.

Preparedness is greatly facilitated when all potential responding entities are working with the same data sets for the same features. Decisions also must be made as to whether data will be accessed from single sources or whether they will be hosted by some or all of the agencies involved in the response. Discussions about how. Applications, such as web servers and services and databases related to specific recovery and response activities, should be developed.

Decisions should be made about how data are to be reported times, units, method, format , which agencies will be preparing reports, and where the data and information are located and how and by whom they can be accessed. If imagery is to be used during the response, this is the time to consider user requirements for each mission, imagery that will meet these requirements, whether imagery may meet multiple requirements, what steps will facilitate the acquisition of this imagery, and how and to whom the imagery will be distributed after it has been acquired.

In the preparedness phase, geospatial tools can be used to display the distribution of hazards and risks as they exist now and risks as they may exist under different future development scenarios. This enables local and regional planners to work with emergency managers to plan for more sustainable futures through the avoidance or mitigation of higher-risk alternatives. For example, evacuation routes can be planned based upon demographics, capacity of existing roads, and traffic volume as a function of day and time.

Models of event scenarios can be used either in the development of single- or multiagency response plans or as part of exercises designed to test agency preparedness and the adequacy of those plans. The scenarios are essential in developing the master scenario events lists MSELs that enable exercise designers and controllers to test critical aspects of response plans and to develop additional modifications of the course of events during an exercise.

Models also can be used prior to the actual impact of an event pre-landfall for hurricanes or prior to flood crest to estimate potential numbers of fatalities, injuries, and damage to infrastructure, so that responding agencies can initiate activities as soon as it is safe to move into the impacted area.

Wind-speed models for hurricanes can be used to estimate the extent of expected damage to buildings. Energy-infrastructure damage models can be used to estimate the likely extent of damage to the distribution grid, and water- and ice-demand models can be used to estimate initial daily demand for these commodities. Response activities are undertaken immediately following a disaster to provide emergency assistance to victims. The response phase starts with the onset of the disaster and is devoted to reducing life-threatening conditions, providing life-sustaining aid, and stopping additional damage to property.

During this phase, responders are engaged in a myriad of ac-. As examples, search-and-rescue efforts are made to find individuals who may be trapped in buildings, under debris, or on roofs; basic commodities such as water and ice are distributed to affected populations; temporary power and shelters are established and provided; and fires and spills or leaks of hazardous materials are controlled.

Although this phase is considered to begin when disaster strikes, not all disasters occur suddenly and without warning—sometimes onset is slower or anticipated, in which case response overlaps with the preceding preparedness phase and may include proactive steps such as warning and evacuation. Likewise, this phase has been defined historically as lasting 72 hours, but a clear end point for this period is difficult to define.

It transitions into the recovery phase, and in reality response and recovery may overlap, especially during large, complex incidents. Geospatial information and analysis are critical inputs to incident management and tactical decision making.

Activities during this period include image acquisition, processing, analysis, distribution, and conversion to information products. Other geospatial data also must be collected, collated, summarized, and converted into maps, reports, and other information products. While sophisticated imagery and analysis are valuable to the response effort, the products most in demand are maps, including, for example, maps of the impact area and of the extent of damage; the locations of population in the impact area; the locations of assets to be used in the response, including inventories of critical supplies such as potable water and ice, temporary roofing material, medical supplies, and generators; maps of the area without power and of the timing of the return of power; and maps of road and bridge closures and downed power lines.

Attention must be given to reducing errors that arise when data are collected by different entities, or at different times, and then integrated into information products.

Agreements need to be made regarding data reporting intervals and times, and data have to be time-stamped accurately. Finally, generation of data, information, and products is only part of the challenge—these must then be distributed to those who need them to do their jobs. Geospatial data are often voluminous, and this is especially true of imagery, which may amount to hundreds of megabytes or even gigabytes.

Moving such volumes of data over networks that may have been partially disabled can be problematic, and Internet access to data repositories often fails. Firewalls and other security software installed on networks can also pose problems for the distribution of data and can significantly slow response. Agencies have often had to resort to physical distribution of CDs compact discs and other digital media during the response phase. During the response phase immediately following an event, but prior to good information being available either from remote-sensing sources or from reporting on the ground, geospatial models can be used to provide damage estimates e.

Alternatively, real-time data from in situ monitoring can be used with geospatial models to determine conditions during an event, such as the use of real-time stream gauge data to issue flood warnings or the use of Doppler radar data, which results in the issuance of public warnings for severe thunderstorms and tornadic activity. While both imagery and verified reports from the impact area will eventually replace and refine the information provided by models, the latter may be the best source of information for several days after the onset of the disaster.

Use of dynamic models can help guide and improve response; for example, the wildfire community makes extensive use of real-time and near-real-time geospatial modeling of wildfire behavior for logistical support. Display functions remain important at this time, showing the location of damage to specific infrastructure components e.

Emergency management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies preparedness, response, mitigation, and recovery. The aim is to reduce the harmful effects of all hazards, including disasters. The World Health Organization defines an emergency as the state in which normal procedures are interrupted, and immediate measures need to be taken to prevent that state turning into a disaster.

In general, warehouses are focal points for product and information flow between sources of supply and beneficiaries. However, in humanitarian supply chains, warehouses vary greatly in terms of their role and their characteristics. The global warehousing concept has gained popularity over the last decade as stock pre-positioning becomes one of the strategies for ensuring a timely response to emergencies. They are usually purpose built or purpose designed facilities operated by permanent staff that has been trained in all the skills necessary to run an efficient facility or utilising third party logistics 3PL staff and facilities. For such operations, organisations use, information systems that are computer based, with sophisticated software to help in the planning and management of the warehouse.

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These are classified as blood components prepared in the blood transfusion centre red cells, platelets, fresh frozen plasma and cryoprecipitate or plasma derivatives manufactured from pooled plasma donations in plasma fractionation centres such as albumin, coagulation factors and immunoglobulins. Plasma derivatives are covered by the Medicines Act and, like any other drug, must be prescribed by a licensed practitioner. Since , as a vCJD risk-reduction measure, all plasma derivatives used in the UK are manufactured using donations from countries with a low risk of vCJD. Whole blood is now rarely used for transfusion. Blood component therapy makes clinical sense as most patients require a specific element of blood, such as red cells or platelets, and the dose can then be optimised. Each component is stored under ideal conditions e. The use of blood components in clinical practice is covered in Chapters 7 to

List of NFPA Codes & Standards

Frozen Plasma - The shelf life is 1 year from the date of collection. Thawed Plasma - The shelf life of thawed plasma is either 24 hours or 5 days, depending on the plasma product. The expiration date is located on the unit s. Apheresis Platelets or Single Donor Platelets - Therapeutic dose collected from 1 donor via an automated apheresis procedure; is equivalent to 6 whole blood derived platelet units.

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Definition

Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. The day before September 11, , the cover story of U.

Note: No two locations shall be identical in respect of layout, surroundings, products, storage quantities, meteorological data etc. Emergencies can be categorized into three broad levels on the basis of seriousness and response requirements, namely These Codes of Practices shall be implemented for the areas covered under Regulation 3 as per the implementation period mentioned in Schedule-I.

This book has a lot of errors, some of the information is contradictory to the AABB Blood Bank manual, and other chapters within itself, it also has a problem with its flow of information, it quiet often fails to give some of the more basic information needed before starting on more advanced information, in other cases it fails to follow though with the more advanced subjects needed for a complete understanding of blood bank methods, in some cases information is completely missing, among the information that is missing is many of the anti-bodies that are tested for and on the ASCP board exam. There are much better books available for blood banking, this is very disappointing considering the career of Sally Rudmann. Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book. Elsevier Health Sciences Amazon. Shop for Books on Google Play Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. Textbook of Blood Banking and Transfusion Medicine. Sally V.

If your emergency response plan is effective and current, you're probably in good shape. Is their training appropriate for current and future business changes? Warehouse storage (products/materials stored) and types of storage like rack, One of the most important parts of developing a response plan is your prefire  Missing: units ‎| Must include: units.

Emergency management

Account Options Sign in. My library Help Advanced Book Search. Get print book. Shop for Books on Google Play Browse the world's largest eBookstore and start reading today on the web, tablet, phone, or ereader. David Sweet. The ability to remove a trapped victim from a vehicle or other machinery is vital for fire and rescue personnel. Based on the edition of NFPA , Standard for Technical Rescuer Professional Qualifications, this text provides rescue technicians with the knowledge and step-by-step technical instruction needed to fully understand all aspects of vehicle extrication incidents. Important Notice: The digital edition of this book is missing some of the images or content found in the physical edition.

Cryoprecipitate packs

It clearly describes the ins and outs of every procedure you're likely to consider, such as how , why , when to , and when not to perform them, in addition toand recommends other emergency or acute care procedures that may be an option. Thoroughly revised and updated throughout, the 7th Edition remains the most well-known and trusted procedures manual in its field. Features new and updated information on ultrasound throughout the text , including Ultrasound Boxes which that are expertly written and richly illustrated with photographs and clinical correlative images. Includes more Procedure Boxes that allow you to see entire procedures at a glance, functioning as a mini-atlas that allows you to quickly grasp how to perform a procedure. Contains hundreds more than of new figures — — of more than 3, images total— — plus including new color photographs, a new Ultrasound Boxes, and new algorithms, new authors, new concepts and approaches. Features a new chapter on Procedures in the Setting of Anticoagulation. Covers hot topics such as novel loop abscess drainage technique, ENT techniques, and ophthalmology techniques, as well as procedures performed by acute care practitioners such as sedation of the agitated patient, alternate methods of drug delivery, and common errors and complications in the acute care setting. He has been involved in several seminal studies of preeclampsia including the recognition of preeclampsia as involving endothelial dysfunction and being more than hypertension in pregnancy.

Blood Transfusion Services

Account Options Login. Koleksiku Bantuan Penelusuran Buku Lanjutan. Dapatkan buku cetak. Belanja Buku di Google Play Jelajahi eBookstore terbesar di dunia dan baca lewat web, tablet, ponsel, atau ereader mulai hari ini.

Emergency Escape and Fire Fighting

Джабба открыл рот. - Но, директор, ведь это… - Риск, - прервал его Фонтейн.  - Однако мы можем выиграть.  - Он взял у Джаббы мобильный телефон и нажал несколько кнопок.

Все были в растерянности. - Ключ… - Ее передернуло.

Светлые волосы тщательно уложены. - Прошу меня извинить, - пробормотал Беккер, застегивая пряжку на ремне.  - Мужская комната оказалась закрыта… но я уже ухожу.

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