Roughness is an important parameter when trying to find out whether a surface is suitable for a certain purpose. Rough surfaces often wear out more quickly than smoother surfaces. Rougher surfaces are normally more vulnerable to corrosion and cracks, but they can also aid in adhesion. A roughness tester is used to quickly and accurately determine the surface texture or surface roughness of a material.
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This guide is intended for pipeline engineers, inspectors and managers. It covers the use, types, fabrication, measurement and inspection of pipes and pipeline networks, predominantly in the oil and gas industry and energy sector, and links to more detailed page resources. Pipe dimension measurement. Pipe measurement tools. Pipe alignment. Introduction to pipe welding. Pipe failures and welding defects. Pipe inspection. Introduction to pipelines. Pipe manufacturing. Types of pipelines. Pipelines and the environment.
Pipe fabrication and installation. Pipeline installation standards. Pipelines have been used for many hundreds of years to transport resources from one location to another. From basic wooden tubes that were lashed together in lengths, to modern unplasticised polyvinyl chloride pipes uPVC , they have always played a key role in the survival of man. These manufactured tubular sections can now be found everywhere on the planet performing numerous essential functions, like carrying the sewage from our homes, to the upright sections of metalwork supporting the lights on our streets.
One of the areas which sees the most prolific uses of pipework is the energy sector. A growing global population places huge demands on industry to provide the necessary resources to support that growth. However, environmental concerns have placed all industries under the spotlight. Despite the often negative attention the energy sector receives, a great deal of effort goes into ensuring the millions of kilometres of pipelines utilised by industry meet stringent safety standards, both in terms of production of the pipes themselves and the products they transport.
This article looks at the production of pipeline networks and examines the multitude of techniques used to install, maintain and utilise pipes in modern working environments. The hollow, tubular pipe form is inherently strong and therefore lends itself to not only supporting external loads in construction use, but also for transporting a product from one place to another. Today, most pipes are made in steel mills. Other materials such as exotic alloys and now carbon steel are becoming more widespread.
Whilst steel is used principally due to its strength, it can also be made into incredibly lightweight tube sections for use where the pipe weight is a consideration, for example, the manufacture of leisure equipment or racing bike frames. Steel pipes are typically manufactured into one of two types:.
Seamless pipe: made by piercing a solid billet of pipe to render a hollow tube. Welded pipe: made by taking a large sheet and folding it into a tubular shape. This process utilises a rotary piercer, to make a hollow into a solid billet of steel which has been heated in a rotary furnace to render the material sufficiently soft to penetrate.
The heated steel billet is then moved onto the mandrel with the assistance of a set of rollers and pushed along the length, producing a hollow tube of seamless pipe.
Welding sheet metal into a tubular form by a forging process dates back over years. In fact, the British ironware merchant, James Whitehouse , was granted a patent as early as for welded pipe.
Today, steel with a thickness of as much as mm can be curved into tubes, often using an electrical current to heat the material in preparation for bending or other pipe fabrication techniques. Pipelines in the energy sector are generally divided into two categories:. Liquid pipelines transport products such as crude oil from its source location back to a refinery where it will be subjected to production processes, for example, distillation. However, natural gas pipelines transport the product from the source to processing plants where they will be distributed via another pipeline network.
Within the two main pipeline categories, there are 4 subcategories:. Gathering pipelines: transport crude oil, natural gas and other liquids over short distances. Their purpose is generally to collect products from sources before carrying the product to the next stage for processing..
Feeder pipelines: carry oil, gas, and other liquids from storage tanks and processing facilities to the next stage - transmission pipelines. Transmission pipelines: transport natural gases, liquids, crude oil, and other processed products over longer distances where destinations may be in other nations.
Distribution pipelines: these pipelines are used to distribute products directly to businesses and residential locations. Pipes can vary in length but are typically 12 metres in length.
They can be cut to the desired size by a production team in a factory or welded into longer lengths to facilitate easier pipeline installation. Plain end pipes are commonly used on small diameter pipes and connected with slip-on flanges and socket weld fittings. Threaded end pipes are again used with smaller diameter pipe connections using other threaded pipes. Bevelled end pipes are generally welded together in lengths to create near seamless networks for transporting the product.
Pipe diameters vary in size depending on the application and product intended to be transported, but can generally be categorised into the following:. Nominal pipe size NPS is the North American standard for pipes that are used under high or low temperatures or pressures. Pipe dimensions and their measurements are covered in greater detail later in this guide. Pipelines are often used to carry gas and liquid products over great distances, frequently over third-party land.
The consequences of a burst or even damaged pipeline are potentially catastrophic. Therefore, in order to ensure the safe installation, management and production of a pipeline, it is necessary for installation businesses to adhere to standards. Before a pipeline is installed, a great deal of consideration goes into its construction, including the route, surroundings and the resulting impact on the environment.
There are often sensitivities around the nature of the product to be transported through the pipe network due to the risks involved. Increased awareness of the environment has resulted in a focus on any industrial activity which might compromise humans, animals or nature itself.
The products carried by pipelines are typically corrosive, flammable and toxic, therefore pose a risk to life. There have been a number of disasters in recent times whereby accidents due to pipeline production has resulted in catastrophic events. In the same way that the aviation industry employs a scrutinous response to air accidents in an attempt to avoid a future repeat of an air accident, the oil and gas sector also reacts positively.
From these disastrous events, improved safety has been drawn into the spotlight with huge amounts of money being invested in an attempt to minimise risk and improve safety for all areas of the industry. Every accident now leads to intense safety reviews where processes, practice, technology and equipment is considered. Pipe fabrication in this context can mean any one of the following activities:.
Each of these fabrication techniques may be applied depending on the nature of the product it will transport and the location of the pipe installation. Certain scenarios, such as subsea deep water for example, require a pipe to be not only thick-walled, strong and robust, but resilient to intense pressure.
Therefore, fabrication and testing are necessary to determine whether the chosen pipe will withstand the stress and strain of production. These challenges are not limited to the pipes during the production phase, but also during installation.
The practicalities of moving and constructing a pipeline network at such depths not only include ensuring that the stringent specifications for installation are met, but safety compliance regulations too, present a hugely challenging task for businesses in the sector.
Conversely, fabrication and construction for pipes used across land is considerably less complex. Whilst this type of pipe installation is not without its own challenges, activities such as transportation, fitting and construction are less complicated and also negate the need for such high levels of fabrication. Pipelay vessels are required to offshore installations where deepwater pipelines are to be constructed using methods including tow-in, J-lay or S-lay.
A typical pipeline installation process will involve the following steps:. Pipeline installation projects can take anything from a few months to several years to complete and requires many different skills, often implemented by a supply chain to larger companies. Independent inspection and the subsequent approval by a third-party organisation in the supply chain is beneficial to these large firms as it adds a level of rigour to a project, something which is not achieved when they approve their own work.
The safe installation and continuous management of pipelines requires companies to follow strict levels of code during the construction and operational phases of a pipeline project. There are 3 main codes which pipeline operators must observe:. Each of these organisations stipulates very specific requirements for pipelines operators to acknowledge and factor into their working practices, all with the sole aim of improving the safety during installation and operation stages.
Another highly important aspect is to provide a common standard that is approved by the pipeline operators and used by subcontractors on projects, including the pipe mills.
Det Norske Veritas issued their first pipeline code in and has since gone on to achieve global recognition as the administrator of one of the leading pipeline standards organisations. These comprise service specifications and recommended practices, which are highly regarded within the international pipeline sector. Established in , the American Petroleum Institute has issued over standards to establish, maintain, and distribute consensus standards for the oil and gas industry.
The objective of the API is to enhance operational safety, environmental protection and sustainability across the industry. They claim to help speed up project acceptance, bring products to market more quickly, and avoid repetitive processes every time a product is manufactured. The ISO offers numerous standards across a huge range of organisations, but also specifies and recommends codes of practice for the design, materials, construction, testing, operation, maintenance and abandonment of pipeline systems used for transportation in the petroleum and natural gas industries.
Their purpose is that they aim to provide a basis for safe design, construction, testing, operation, maintenance and abandonment of pipeline projects. Standards are a high priority for all involved in pipelines, whether that involvement may be manufacturing, installation or operation.
The importance of any guidelines, regardless of the organisation that is recommending them, is the safety of people and the environment. The geometry of pipes, hollow tubes, cylinders, or whatever you prefer to call them is the subject of many varying interpretations. The aim of this section is to provide a general guide to the dimensions which are commonly referred to by those working with pipelines.
This dimension is the overall distance between one end of a pipe and another. This is the distance between the outer edges of the pipe end. The inner diameter is the distance between the two edges of the hole, sometimes called the inner bore.
Pipe wall thickness is the overall width of the pipe wall. There tends to be a lack of consistency with regards to referencing pipe dimensions.
For example, in the United States of America US , dimensions are quoted in feet and inches, whereas in Europe, they are measured in centimetres. Greater clarity and a determined set of geometry terms would help to create the necessary dimensional terminology required for consistent pipeline construction and operation. There are many other pipe measurements that cover the ends of the pipe including pipe end squareness, pipe straightness, end dimensions, angles, weld types and joints.
These are explained in more detail on our blog pages. Given that there are numerous aspects of a pipe that might require measurement, there are many techniques and tools to carry out the measuring process itself.
Glazing - this term covers a wide spectrum of activities related to working with glass, windows and frames. This begins with cutting, assembly of panes and windows as well as the required measuring techniques and includes lead and brass glazing. Repair glazing and restoration work will continue to be important in the future, too. For this constantly growing and developing field of work you can find the appropriate quality tools and aids in this chapter that allow you to achieve professional results.
Week 3: Measurements and Laser Cutters
This guide is intended for pipeline engineers, inspectors and managers. It covers the use, types, fabrication, measurement and inspection of pipes and pipeline networks, predominantly in the oil and gas industry and energy sector, and links to more detailed page resources. Pipe dimension measurement. Pipe measurement tools. Pipe alignment. Introduction to pipe welding. Pipe failures and welding defects.
Metering and Measurement of Oil and Gas and How It Works
Precision tools help manufacturers achieve the tight tolerances and quality requirements demanded by their customers. Hand tools and inspection, measuring, and test equipment IMTE are an investment for every organization that needs precise inspections. Selecting the right tools plays an important part in maintaining high-quality services. Common precision tools include:. As a full distributor, we also provide parts replacement and services for tools from Mahr, Mitutoyo, and Starrett. Accu-Chek can supply your company with a wide variety of the precision tools needed to meet all your application needs.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Measurement Tools and Units
Please use the form below to find the content you are looking for, use the filter tools to search by content type. Accurately measuring the progress of a project is always a challenge. There are many factors to account for in a progress update — type of measurement, accuracy of the data, and the system of record are all important factor in accurate progress measurements. Sure there a 3 choices for Percent Complete Types , but how to we decide which one works best and under which conditions? Inaccurate progress will foil your ability to spot early warning signs of trouble ahead. Usually a task that is done repeatedly tends to take about the same amount of time, resources and effort, so tracking the units completed works well here. A simple example could be installing standard light fixtures. Each fixture takes roughly the same amount of time. If we had fixtures to install then we can simply count the units installed.
Managing a pipe spool fabrication project from start to finish
While it may be true that you can never have too many tools, some of the most useful tools you should have in your toolbox are not chromed or made with safety-grip handles. Some of these measuring tools are not cheap, but each performs at least one essential function that professional mechanics and manufacturers use on a regular basis and that you may someday also have a need for. Usually, you discover you need them right in the middle of a job, so it is a good idea to be preemptive and acquire these measuring tools as time and money permit. We list these tools roughly in what we consider order of importance, but you can set your own priorities based on use and cost.
Measurement tools are often an afterthought when compiling tools for a workshop, but they shouldn't be. A minute error in measurement is all it takes to ruin an entire project. Invest in quality measurement and layout tools, which will last longer and remain accurate for years to come. A well-worn tape measure signifies a builder who takes their work seriously. A tape measure should have a sturdy hook that moves, and is able to extend and retract with ease. A foot tape hits the sweet spot—it's a tool with enough length for measuring extended spans but not too long that's it's heavy and unwieldy to use for shorter measurements. This Milwaukee Tape Measure is extremely durable and built to withstand abuse but maintain its integrity. A speed square can be found on the hip of carpenters and DIYers everywhere.
Measuring Project Progress : 6 Methods You Should Know
Any manufacturer who wants to take their business to the next level needs to collect and analyse the relevant data, or metrics. Numbers are powerful things in business. The right metrics can help you find the sticking points or weak spots in your production line and processes, giving you the information and insights you need to continuously improve and refine your business. As well as collecting the right metrics in the right way, you also need a proper process in place to review — and then act on — the results. Explore more about OEE by clicking on the link below to download a free whitepaper. You may also find these related papers explaining lean , automating your way to lean manufacturing and continuous improvement interesting.
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As Steve Hoefer's uncle would say, "I cut it twice and it's still too short. Experienced builders have finely honed estimation skills, but a single bad measurement is still one of the quickest ways to ruin a project, or at least a part of one. As my uncle would say, "I cut it twice and it's still too short. A big part of measuring things well is using the right tool for the job. Length, depth, angle, weight, level, diameter and circumference all have different tools designed to get it right. The precision of the measuring tool is also important. That is, how sloppy will the measurement be? The length of floor joists can safely vary by a quarter inch, but a hundredth of an inch variance will ruin the threads on a small bolt.
Fulfilling a contract to fabricate and deliver pipe spools is never a small undertaking. Every step is an opportunity for something to go wrong, so careful planning before sending the request for quote RFQ to fabricators and careful monitoring and expediting of the processes during fabrication help to contribute to a successful, timely, and profitable outcome. Thorough planning, preparation, and scheduling early in the process are beneficial to the project owner, the builder, and the pipe spool fabricator. The first question that arises is basic, but critical, and concerns the benchmark for bidding on the RFQ.
Direct and Indirect Measurements
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A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler used to measure distance. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fibre glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings.
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