Textile-reinforced composites are increasingly used in various industries such as aerospace, construction, automotive, medicine, and sports due to their distinctive advantages over traditional materials such as metals and ceramics. Fiber-reinforced composite materials are lightweight, stiff, and strong. They have good fatigue and impact resistance. Their directional and overall properties can be tailored to fulfill specific needs of different end uses by changing constituent material types and fabrication parameters such as fiber volume fraction and fiber architecture. A variety of fiber architectures can be obtained by using two- 2D and three-dimensional 3D fabric production techniques such as weaving, knitting, braiding, stitching, and nonwoven methods. This chapter highlights the constituent materials, fabric formation techniques, production methods, as well as application areas of textile-reinforced composites.
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Textile Reinforced Structural Composites for Advanced ApplicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Netting Material and Accessories for Fishing Gear
A textile  is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers yarn or thread. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other materials to produce long strands.
The related words " fabric "  and " cloth "  and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades such as tailoring and dressmaking as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage. A textile is any material made of interlacing fibres, including carpeting and geotextiles. A fabric is a material made through weaving, knitting, spreading, crocheting, or bonding that may be used in production of further goods garments, etc.
Cloth may be used synonymously with fabric but is often a piece of fabric that has been processed. The word 'textile' is from Latin , from the adjective textilis , meaning 'woven', from textus , the past participle of the verb texere , 'to weave'. The word 'fabric' also derives from Latin, most recently from the Middle French fabrique , or 'building, thing made', and earlier as the Latin fabrica 'workshop; an art, trade; a skilful production, structure, fabric', which is from the Latin faber , or 'artisan who works in hard materials', from PIE dhabh- , meaning 'to fit together'.
The first clothes, worn at least 70, years ago and perhaps much earlier, were probably made of animal skins and helped protect early humans from the ice ages. Then at some point people learned to weave plant fibers into textiles.
The discovery of dyed flax fibres in a cave in the Republic of Georgia dated to 34, BCE suggests textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times. The production of textiles is a craft whose speed and scale of production has been altered almost beyond recognition by industrialization and the introduction of modern manufacturing techniques. However, for the main types of textiles, plain weave , twill , or satin weave , there is little difference between the ancient and modern methods.
Textiles have an assortment of uses, the most common of which are for clothing and for containers such as bags and baskets. In the household they are used in carpeting , upholstered furnishings , window shades , towels , coverings for tables, beds, and other flat surfaces, and in art. In the workplace they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering.
Miscellaneous uses include flags , backpacks , tents , nets , handkerchiefs , cleaning rags , transportation devices such as balloons , kites , sails , and parachutes ; textiles are also used to provide strengthening in composite materials such as fibreglass and industrial geotextiles. Textiles are used in many traditional crafts such as sewing , quilting and embroidery. Textiles for industrial purposes, and chosen for characteristics other than their appearance, are commonly referred to as technical textiles.
Technical textiles include textile structures for automotive applications, medical textiles e. In all these applications stringent performance requirements must be met.
Woven of threads coated with zinc oxide nanowires , laboratory fabric has been shown capable of "self-powering nanosystems" using vibrations created by everyday actions like wind or body movements. Textiles are made from many materials, with four main sources: animal wool , silk , plant cotton , flax , jute , bamboo , mineral asbestos , glass fibre , and synthetic nylon , polyester , acrylic , rayon. The first three are natural. In the 20th century, they were supplemented by artificial fibres made from petroleum.
Textiles are made in various strengths and degrees of durability, from the finest microfibre made of strands thinner than one denier to the sturdiest canvas. Textile manufacturing terminology has a wealth of descriptive terms, from light gauze -like gossamer to heavy grosgrain cloth and beyond.
Animal textiles are commonly made from hair , fur , skin or silk in the silkworms case. Wool refers to the hair of the domestic sheep or goat , which is distinguished from other types of animal hair in that the individual strands are coated with scales and tightly crimped, and the wool as a whole is coated with a wax mixture known as lanolin sometimes called wool grease , which is waterproof and dirtproof.
Wool is commonly used for warm clothing. Cashmere , the hair of the Indian cashmere goat , and mohair , the hair of the North African angora goat , are types of wool known for their softness. Angora refers to the long, thick, soft hair of the angora rabbit. Qiviut is the fine inner wool of the muskox.
Sea silk is an extremely fine, rare, and valuable fabric that is made from the silky filaments or byssus secreted by a gland in the foot of pen shells. Silk is an animal textile made from the fibres of the cocoon of the Chinese silkworm which is spun into a smooth fabric prized for its softness.
There are two main types of the silk: 'mulberry silk' produced by the Bombyx Mori , and 'wild silk' such as Tussah silk wild silk. Silkworm larvae produce the first type if cultivated in habitats with fresh mulberry leaves for consumption, while Tussah silk is produced by silkworms feeding purely on oak leaves.
Around four-fifths of the world's silk production consists of cultivated silk. Grass , rush , hemp , and sisal are all used in making rope. In the first two, the entire plant is used for this purpose, while in the last two, only fibres from the plant are utilized. Coir coconut fibre is used in making twine , and also in floormats, doormats , brushes , mattresses , floor tiles, and sacking.
Straw and bamboo are both used to make hats. Straw, a dried form of grass, is also used for stuffing, as is kapok. Fibres from pulpwood trees, cotton, rice , hemp, and nettle are used in making paper. Cotton , flax , jute, hemp, modal and even bamboo fibre are all used in clothing. Nettles have also been used to make a fibre and fabric very similar to hemp or flax.
The use of milkweed stalk fibre has also been reported, but it tends to be somewhat weaker than other fibres like hemp or flax. The inner bark of the lacebark tree is a fine netting that has been used to make clothing and accessories as well as utilitarian articles such as rope.
Acetate is used to increase the shininess of certain fabrics such as silks , velvets , and taffetas. Seaweed is used in the production of textiles: a water-soluble fibre known as alginate is produced and is used as a holding fibre; when the cloth is finished, the alginate is dissolved, leaving an open area.
Rayon is a manufactured fabric derived from plant pulp. Different types of rayon can imitate the feel and texture of silk, cotton, wool, or linen. Fibres from the stalks of plants, such as hemp, flax, and nettles, are also known as 'bast' fibres.
Asbestos and basalt fibre are used for vinyl tiles, sheeting and adhesives, "transite" panels and siding, acoustical ceilings, stage curtains, and fire blankets. Glass fibre is used in the production of ironing board and mattress covers, ropes and cables, reinforcement fibre for composite materials, insect netting, flame-retardant and protective fabric, soundproof, fireproof, and insulating fibres. Glass fibres are woven and coated with Teflon to produce beta cloth , a virtually fireproof fabric which replaced nylon in the outer layer of United States space suits since Metal fibre, metal foil, and metal wire have a variety of uses, including the production of cloth-of-gold and jewellery.
Hardware cloth US term only is a coarse woven mesh of steel wire, used in construction. It is much like standard window screening , but heavier and with a more open weave. Minerals and natural and synthetic fabrics may be combined, as in emery cloth , a layer of emery abrasive glued to a cloth backing. Also, "sand cloth" is a U. Synthetic textiles are used primarily in the production of clothing, as well as the manufacture of geotextiles.
Polyester fibre is used in all types of clothing, either alone or blended with fibres such as cotton. Aramid fibre e. Twaron is used for flame-retardant clothing, cut-protection, and armour. Acrylic is a fibre used to imitate wools,  including cashmere, and is often used in replacement of them. Nylon is a fibre used to imitate silk; it is used in the production of pantyhose. Thicker nylon fibres are used in rope and outdoor clothing.
Spandex trade name Lycra is a polyurethane product that can be made tight-fitting without impeding movement. It is used to make activewear , bras , and swimsuits. Olefin fibre is a fibre used in activewear, linings, and warm clothing. Olefins are hydrophobic, allowing them to dry quickly.
A sintered felt of olefin fibres is sold under the trade name Tyvek. Ingeo is a polylactide fibre blended with other fibres such as cotton and used in clothing. It is more hydrophilic than most other synthetics, allowing it to wick away perspiration. Lurex is a metallic fibre used in clothing embellishment. Milk proteins have also been used to create synthetic fabric. Milk or casein fibre cloth was developed during World War I in Germany, and further developed in Italy and America during the s.
It is marketed as a biodegradable , renewable synthetic fibre. Carbon fibre is mostly used in composite materials, together with resin, such as carbon fibre reinforced plastic.
The fibres are made from polymer fibres through carbonization. Weaving is a textile production method which involves interlacing a set of longer threads called the warp with a set of crossing threads called the weft. This is done on a frame or machine known as a loom , of which there are a number of types.
Some weaving is still done by hand, but the vast majority is mechanized. Knitting , looping , and crocheting involve interlacing loops of yarn, which are formed either on a knitting needle , needle, or on a crochet hook , together in a line. The processes are different in that knitting has several active loops at one time, on the knitting needle waiting to interlock with another loop, while Looping and crocheting never have more than one active loop on the needle.
Knitting can be performed by machine, but crochet can only be performed by hand. Spread Tow is a production method where the yarn are spread into thin tapes, and then the tapes are woven as warp and weft. This method is mostly used for composite materials; spread tow fabrics can be made in carbon , aramide , etc. Braiding or plaiting involves twisting threads together into cloth. Knotting involves tying threads together and is used in making tatting and macrame.
Lace is made by interlocking threads together independently, using a backing and any of the methods described above, to create a fine fabric with open holes in the work. Lace can be made by either hand or machine. Carpets , rugs, velvet, velour , and velveteen are made by interlacing a secondary yarn through woven cloth, creating a tufted layer known as a nap or pile.
Felting involves pressing a mat of fibres together, and working them together until they become tangled. A liquid, such as soapy water, is usually added to lubricate the fibres, and to open up the microscopic scales on strands of wool. Nonwoven textiles are manufactured by the bonding of fibres to make fabric. Bonding may be thermal or mechanical, or adhesives can be used.
A textile  is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers yarn or thread. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other materials to produce long strands. The related words " fabric "  and " cloth "  and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades such as tailoring and dressmaking as synonyms for textile. However, there are subtle differences in these terms in specialized usage.
Glossary of textile manufacturing
The manufacture of textiles is one of the oldest of human technologies. To make textiles, the first requirement is a source of fibre from which a yarn can be made, primarily by spinning. Both fibre and fiber are used in this article. The yarn is processed by knitting or weaving , which turns yarn into cloth. The machine used for weaving is the loom. For decoration, the process of colouring yarn or the finished material is dyeing.
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Солги и столкни лбами своих врагов. - Это чистая правда! - кричал .
А теперь, если не возражаешь… - Стратмор не договорил, но Чатрукьян понял его без слов. Ему предложили исчезнуть. - Диагностика, черт меня дери! - бормотал Чатрукьян, направляясь в свою лабораторию. - Что же это за цикличная функция, над которой три миллиона процессоров бьются уже шестнадцать часов. Он постоял в нерешительности, раздумывая, не следует ли поставить в известность начальника лаборатории безопасности.
Да будь они прокляты, эти криптографы. Ничего не понимают в системах безопасности.
Я хотел лично сказать Росио, какое удовольствие получил от общения с ней несколько дней. Но я уезжаю сегодня вечером. Пожалуй, я все же оставлю ей записку. - И он положил конверт на стойку.
- Дай мне двадцать минут, чтобы уничтожить файлы лаборатории систем безопасности. После этого я сразу перейду к своему терминалу и выключу ТРАНСТЕКСТ. - Давайте скорее, - сказала Сьюзан, пытаясь что-нибудь разглядеть сквозь тяжелую стеклянную дверь.
Нет. Он вырвался оттуда. Нужно немедленно вызвать службу безопасности. Я выключаю ТРАНСТЕКСТ! - Она потянулась к клавиатуре. - Не смей прикасаться! - Стратмор рванулся к терминалу и отдернул ее руку.
Обескураженная, Сьюзан подалась. Она смотрела на коммандера и второй раз за этот день не могла его узнать. Вдруг она ощутила страшное одиночество.
Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул. Через шестьдесят секунд у него над головой затрещал интерком. - Прошу начальника систем безопасности связаться с главным коммутатором, где его ждет важное сообщение. От изумления у Джаббы глаза вылезли на лоб. Похоже, она от меня не отвяжется. И он решил не реагировать на сообщение. ГЛАВА 79 Стратмор спрятал пейджер в карман и, посмотрев в сторону Третьего узла, протянул руку, чтобы вести Сьюзан за .
Мужчина рядом нахмурился. - Turista, - усмехнулся. И прошептал чуть насмешливо: - Llamo un medico. Вызвать доктора. Беккер поднял глаза на усыпанное родинками старческое лицо. - No, gracias. Estoy bien. Человек смерил его сердитым взглядом: - Pues sientate. Тогда сядьте.
- Мне нужен совет. Джабба встряхнул бутылочку с острой приправой Доктор Пеппер.
Я сижу у себя точно на раскаленных углях. - Пока .
И хотя в обычных обстоятельствах пришлось бы проверять миллионы вариантов, обнаружить личный код оказалось довольно просто: приступая к работе, криптограф первым делом вводил пароль, отпирающий терминал. Поэтому от Хейла не потребовалось вообще никаких усилий: личные коды соответствовали первым пяти ударам по клавиатуре. Какая ирония, думал он, глядя в монитор Сьюзан. Хейл похитил пароли просто так, ради забавы.
Неужели он ее трогает. Она не сразу поняла, что он пытается застегнуть верхнюю пуговицу ее блузки.