The aim of this Act is to secure a supply to the market of healthy and safe food, including beverages, and to protect health, quality and consumer interests along the whole food production and distribution chain and to secure an environmentally friendly production. The Act shall further enhance good health of plants and animals and shall apply to all matters regarding health of animals and plants. The Act consists of 35 sections divided into 7 Chapters. Keyword: Fish products, International trade, Internal trade, Institution.
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Table of ContentsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Research and training center supports growth of aquaculture in Africa
Adaptation to land degradation is necessary when rehabilitation or restoration of the original state of the land is no longer possible or requires resources beyond the means of land users. Examples include adapting to soil sa-linity by introducing salt-tolerant plants, or climate change adaptation.
The ability of systems, institutions, humans, and other organisms to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequences.
IPCC A term used to describe biodiversity associated with the cultivation of crops and rearing of animals. There are three elements to agrobiodiversity: a the overall range of different crops and animals, b the diversity of crops and animals within a particular farming system, and c the overall biodiversity of both cultivated and natural species within a farming system. Sustainable land management can help maintain and build up levels of biodiversity in all ecosystems.
Land use system in which trees are used for forest products e. Allen et al. Incorporates agricultural crops, potentially including forage crops and livestock production, where trees may produce timber, pulp, fruits, rubber, syrup, or browse for grazing animals.
Enclosing and protecting an area of degraded land from human use and animal interference to permit natural rehabilitation, enhanced by additional vegetative and structural conservation measures. Information about an area or people before a project intervention, used for comparison or control. Diversity among and within plant and animal species in an environment www.
Biodiversity includes diversity within species, between species, and between ecosystems. MEA Linear earthen, stone, or mixed-material embankments or walls positioned across the slope of the land, following the contour as closely as possible. They are built to control soil erosion, promote water retention, and increase crop production.
Also to clear the land for planting, and to control crop pests, diseases, and weeds. A process of strengthening or developing human resources and skills, institutions, organizations, or networks e. Also referred to as capacity development or capacity enhancement. The present value of the stream of ecosystem services that an ecosystem will generate under a particular management or institutional regime.
The process of increasing the carbon content of a reservoir e. MEA ; www. The process of adjustment to actual or expected climate and its effects. In human systems, adaptation seeks to moderate or avoid harm or exploit beneficial opportunities. In some natural systems, human intervention may facilitate adjustment to expected climate and its effects.
Efforts to reduce or prevent emission of greenhouse gases. Mitigation can mean using new technologies and renewable energies, making older equipment more energy efficient, or changing to more sustainable management practices or consumer behaviour. The capacity of social, economic, and environmental systems to cope with a haz-ardous event or trend or disturbance, responding or reorganizing in ways that maintain their essential function, identity, and structure, while also maintaining the capacity for adaptation, learning, and transformation.
Land managed by a community of land users, in which land is subject to community and agreed management rules. A technique designed to determine the feasibility of an intervention, project, or plan by quantifying its costs and benefits.
A crop planted primarily to prevent soil erosion, provide humus soil structure, soil fertility, water holding capacity , prevent diseases, and improve biodiversity in an agroecosystem Lu et al. Cover crops are of interest in sustainable agriculture, and would usually be annual legumes planted between perennials, or in the period between seasons for annual crops. Crops and crop sequences and the management techniques used on a particular field over a period of years.
Blanco Constructed on sloping lands along the contour in the form of earth or soil bunds, stone lines, or vegetative strips, etc. Person whose decisions, and the actions that follow from these decisions, can influence a condition, process, or issue under consideration. Land where vegetation cover has been significantly or completely removed often by a combination of natural and human-accelerated factors.
Land degradation in drylands resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities. Land on which vegetation is sparse or absent, characterized by an arid climate. Deserts may be classified as hot or cold deserts, depending on latitude and elevation. Disaster risk reduction DRR aims, through prevention, to reduce the damage caused by natural hazards including earthquakes, floods, droughts, hurricanes, and cyclones.
A waterway to drain and convey water. A ditch, normally laid out at a slight gradient at the top of a plot of land, intended to intercept and divert concentrated run-off.
Any natural or human-induced factor that directly or indirectly causes a change in an ecosystem. Dryland systems are ecosystems characterized by a lack of water. They include cultivated lands, scrublands, shrublands, grasslands, savannahs, semi-deserts and true deserts. The lack of water constrains the production of crops, forage, wood, and other ecosystem services.
Four dryland subtypes are widely recognized: dry sub-humid, semiarid, arid, and hyperarid, showing an increasing level of aridity or moisture deficit.
Planting at the beginning of or in anticipation of the start of the rains, to make best use of limited rainfall. A dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities and their non-living environment interacting as a functional unit. The sustainable management, conservation, and restoration of ecosystems with the aim of enabling these ecosystems to provide services that mitigate hazards, reduce vulnerability, and increase livelihood resilience.
An intrinsic characteristic of an ecosystem related to the set of conditions and processes through which an ecosystem maintains its integrity such as primary productivity, food chain, biochemical cycles.
Functions include such processes as decomposition, production, nutrient cycling, and fluxes of nutrients and energy. MEA , Liniger et al. The benefits people obtain from ecosystems. These services are categorized into a provisioning services such as food and water, b regulating services such as flood and disease control, c cultural services such as spiritual, recreational, and cultural benefits, and d supporting services, such as nutrient cycling, that maintain the conditions of life on Earth.
Critical preconditions for success of responses, including political, institutional, social, economic, and ecological factors. Technologies that reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services e. Specialists from various disciplines, usually belonging to the advisory service of the government, who work with land users to provide education, capacity building, and access to knowledge.
When all people, at all times, have physical, social, and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food which meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Food security implies guaranteed, regular access to nutritious food that delivers a balanced diet at an affordable price. Four FAO indicators of food security are: i availability, ii access, iii utilization, and iv stability. Systems in which trees are the predominant life forms.
Land on which the vegetation is dominated by trees or, if trees are lacking, bears evidence of former forest and has not been converted to other vegetation or land use. Plantation forests comprise even-aged monocultures and are established primarily for wood and fibre production.
They are usually intensively managed and have relatively high growth rates and productivity. A computerized system designed to capture, store, manipulate, analyse, manage, and present spatial or geographic data through geographical referencing. Benefits from land and water conservation activities that, while yielding local gains, also provide benefits at a global, or at least regional, level. The increasing integration of economies and societies around the world, particularly through trade, financial flows, and the transfer of culture and technology.
The process of regulating human behaviour in accordance with shared objectives. The term includes both governmental and non-governmental mechanisms. Measures the stock of grazing animals cattle, sheep, goats, and horses per fodder area consisting of fodder crops grown on arable land as well as permanent grassland. It is the ratio of the number of livestock units LSUs converted from the number of animals using standard coefficients per hectare of fodder area. Through manure production, livestock can contribute to climate change greenhouse gas emissions and nutrient leaching into water and air.
However, depending on farmer practices, a higher grazing livestock index does not necessarily mean environmental degradation. Management intensity of grassland that can range from intensive to extensive.
Extensive grazing management uses relatively large land areas per animal and a relatively low level of labour, resources, or capital. Intensive grazing management uses relatively high levels of labour, resources, or capital to increase production per unit area or per animal, through a relative increase in stocking rates, grazing pressure, and forage utilization.
System of managing livestock with respect to grazing land e. A defined, integrated combination of soil, plant, animal, social, and economic features, stocking grazing method s and management objectives designed to achieve specific results or goals e.
An economy that aims at reducing environmental risks and ecological scarcities, and that aims for sustainable development without degrading the environment. UNEP A crop, such as clover and other nitrogen-fixing plants, ploughed under to enrich the soil, improving organic matter content and soil fertility. Also called backyard or kitchen gardens, home gardens are a traditional multifunctional farming system applied on a small area of land around the family home.
They have the potential to supply most of the non-staple foods including vegetables, fruits, herbs, animals, and fish. They also provide a space for recreation, leisure, and relaxation. Optimizes the uses of crop and livestock resources through interaction and creation of synergies. A process to solve pest and disease problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment. Any practice that attempts to capitalize on natural processes that reduce pest abundance.
Aims at managing soil by combining different methods of soil-fertility amendment together with soil and water conservation. ISFM is based on three principles: maximizing the use of organic sources of fertilizer e. Aims to achieve higher water use efficiency through more efficient water collection and abstraction, water storage, distribution, and water application.
The physical coverage of land, usually expressed in terms of vegetation cover natural or planted or lack of it. Related to, but not synonymous with, land use. Degradation of land resources including soils, water, vegetation, and animals leading to a reduction in the capacity of the land to provide ecosystem goods and services and assure its functions over a period of time for the beneficiaries of these. Land degradation types are: soil erosion by water, soil erosion by wind, chemical soil deterioration, physical soil deterioration, biological degradation, water degradation.
The maintenance and increase in the amount of healthy and productive land resources, in line with national development priorities. Land management is the process of managing the use and development of land resources for production and conservation purposes.
With more than three decades of teaching and training experience at his credit, he has travelled extensively throughout India and conducted national and international workshops on ELT, career education, and human rights education for generating awareness among school teachers and students in Kolkata, Bhopal, Nagpur, and Mumbai. Some of his articles are published in interdisciplinary journals of national and international repute. Enhancing Employability in Education. Tilak Kumar Sharma.
Adaptation to land degradation is necessary when rehabilitation or restoration of the original state of the land is no longer possible or requires resources beyond the means of land users. Examples include adapting to soil sa-linity by introducing salt-tolerant plants, or climate change adaptation. The ability of systems, institutions, humans, and other organisms to adjust to potential damage, to take advantage of opportunities, or to respond to consequences. IPCC
Global Context. Sector Profile. Slide 4. Indian Scenario. Honey produced in Metric tonnes. Slide 8. Slide 9.
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To keep records is simply to collect relevant information that can help you to take good decisions and to keep track of activities, production and important events on a farm. Records can be about any performance of the animals, economic development, or any activity of the farmer or veterinarian. It is important to keep record keeping simple, and to keep records systematic. If records should be of use for the farmer, than they must be complete none missing , they should be true collected carefully.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat , fibre , milk , eggs , or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated , from around 13, BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt , cattle , sheep , goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and wool. A wide range of other species such as horse , water buffalo , llama , rabbit and guinea pig are used as livestock in some parts of the world. Insect farming , as well as aquaculture of fish , molluscs , and crustaceans , is widespread. Modern animal husbandry relies on production systems adapted to the type of land available. Subsistence farming is being superseded by intensive animal farming in the more developed parts of the world, where for example beef cattle are kept in high density feedlots , and thousands of chickens may be raised in broiler houses or batteries. On poorer soil such as in uplands, animals are often kept more extensively, and may be allowed to roam widely, foraging for themselves. Most livestock are herbivores , except for pigs and chickens which are omnivores.
Act No. 124 of 2003 relative to food production and food safety (Food Act).
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing. Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments. Historians believe that goat and sheep were the first species of animals domesticated for human use. Then, about 9, years ago, humans domesticated the pig.
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This text is meant purely as a documentation tool and has no legal effect. The Union's institutions do not assume any liability for its contents. The authentic versions of the relevant acts, including their preambles, are those published in the Official Journal of the European Union and available in EUR-Lex. Those official texts are directly accessible through the links embedded in this document. This Regulation applies to the following products originating from agriculture, including aquaculture and beekeeping, as listed in Annex I to the TFEU and to products originating from those products, where such products are, or are intended to be, produced, prepared, labelled, distributed, placed on the market, imported into or exported from the Union:. This Regulation also applies to certain other products closely linked to agriculture listed in Annex I to this Regulation, where they are, or are intended to be, produced, prepared, labelled, distributed, placed on the market, imported into or exported from the Union.
Integration of livestock in fish culture is an old age system of practice. Ducks, poultry, pig, cattle, buffalo, sheep and goat are common in mixed farming. Nowadays rabbit also incorporated in integrated livestock cum fish culture. Due to progressive shrinking of farm holding to obtain maximum output adoption of mixed farming system with livestock and fish become very popular in wetland and water shed areas of the country.
Contact Information. Honey Production. Honeybee Research Institute,.
Теперь только один человек в АНБ был по должности выше коммандера Стратмора - директор Лиланд Фонтейн, мифический правитель Дворца головоломок, которого никто никогда не видел, лишь изредка слышал, но перед которым все дрожали от страха. Он редко встречался со Стратмором с глазу на глаз, но когда такое случалось, это можно было сравнить с битвой титанов.
Фонтейн был гигантом из гигантов, но Стратмора это как будто не касалось.
Друг мой, - промурлыкал он в трубку. - Мне показалось, что я уловил в вашей речи бургосский акцент. Сам я из Валенсии. Что привело вас в Севилью.