Ammonia is critical in the manufacturing of fertilizers, and is one of the largest-volume synthetic chemicals produced in the world. This article explores the evolution of ammonia production and describes the current manufacturing technologies. Most people associate the pungent smell of ammonia NH 3 with cleaners or smelling salts. However, the use of ammonia in these two products represents only a small fraction of the total global ammonia production, which was around million metric tons in 1.
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In view of the importance of these publications, it is reasonable to view the IT calorie as being the preferred unit for discussions of energy production and use, but there is no universally adopted practice see also the discussion of Btu, below.
Sometimes a capitalized version, Calorie, is used to denoted the kilocalorie kcal. In discussing food, the "calorie," capitalized or not, is always the kilocalorie.
As for the calorie, there is a family of "Btu's" in relatively common use, including:. The relationship between the kWh and the Btu depends upon which "Btu" is used. It is common, although not universal, to use the equivalence:. This corresponds to the International Table Btu.
Given the wide variations in the actual heat content of fuels, especially oil and coal, it is common to introduce a nominal energy equivalent that reflects a typical energy content of the given fuel, but is decoupled from the variations that occur in actual fuels. The energy equivalent can be considered to be an alternate energy unit, precisely related to units such as the joule, calorie, or Btu.
Energy equivalents for oil and coal are discussed in succeeding paragraphs, below, and are listed in Table 1. Conversion factors for oil. The heat content of crude oil from different countries varies from about 5. The heat content of typical petroleum products varies even more see Table 1. A nominal conversion factor is sometimes used for a barrel of crude oil, which is close to its actual average energy content:.
With this definition, a correspondence can be established between millions of barrels of oil per day Mbd and quads per year:. An energy equivalence for oil can also be specified in terms of energy per metric ton tonne. For the United States, the average was 7. This average, together with the nominal equivalence of 5. There are differing definitions in the literature of a tonne of oil equivalent toe.
These choices correspond, respectively, to:. A corresponding larger unit, the gigatonne of oil equivalent Gtoe can be related to the exajoule and quad:. Conversion factors for coal.
Amounts of coal are described both in short tons and metric tons. For the United States in , the average was In a fairly widely used specification of a nominal value, the energy content of 1 tonne of coal equivalent is set equal to 7 x 10 9 calories [e. Then, at a level of precision that makes the particular choice of "calorie" irrelevant:.
As seen in Table 1, this nominal heat content is considerably higher than the average heat content of coal as presently consumed in the United States; it is, however, fairly close to the average heat content of coal used in the early s 3.
Conversion factors for natural gas. Natural gas is made up largely, but not entirely, of methane CH 4 and its energy content is more uniform than that of coal. For the U. In discussions of natural gas production and consumption it is also common to use the unit therm , where. Electricity sales. Electricity sales differ from net generation due to transmission losses. In , for example, the ratio of U. Efficiency for fossil fuel and nuclear sources.
Actual generation efficiencies, limited by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and design practicalities, fall short of this.
More specifically, for U. Primary energy and end-use energy. The end-use energy and the energy losses are then individually tabulated, with the losses roughly twice as great as the end-use energy. However, this separation creates a possibly misleading asymmetry in comparisons among modes of energy use, because end-use losses are neglected for fossil fuels used directly and these losses sometimes are substantial.
From the standpoint of energy resources, the interesting number is the primary energythe total energy consumed at the generating plant, whether used efficiently or wasted. Thus, it is usually desirable to consider energy budgets in terms of the energy content of the resource originally consumed, i. When this is done, the energy corresponding to 1 kWh of electricity depends upon the conversion efficiency, and is typically above 10, Btu.
Energy equivalent for non-fossil fuel sources. To facilitate comparisons between different energy sources, a conversion factor is assigned to non-fossil fuel sources which relates electricity generated to a nominal primary energy. For nuclear energy, this is done on the basis of the heat content of the steam produced 3. A similar approach can be used for geothermal plants. For the various renewable energy sources, the primary energy cannot be readily established and often is irrelevant.
Gigawatt-year GWyr. Large individual plants have capacities in the neighborhood of 1 GW of electrical output GWe. This makes the gigawatt-year GWyr a natural unit to use in discussions of total electricity production. By definition:. It is to be noted that a 1 GWe plant does not normally generate 1 GWyr of electricity per year.
The ratio of the actual electricity generated to the amount which would be generated were the plant to operate at full capacity for one year is the capacity factor. Thus, typically, the relation between primary energy used and electricity produced is approximately:. Librarians Authors Referees Media Students.
Login Become a Member Contact Us. Introduction Many sorts of units are used in energy discussions. They fall into two broad categories: a those whose definition is not related to a particular fuel, which we here term "basic" units; and b those whose definition is related to idealized properties of a specific fuel, which we here term "source-based" units.
These units, along with special topics related to electricity, are discussed in succeeding sections. Table 1 gives conversion factors between units, as well as the energy content of specific fuels. Basic Units Joule J. This is the basic energy unit of the metric system, or in a later more comprehensive formulation, the International System of Units SI.
It is ultimately defined in terms of the meter, kilogram, and second. Calorie cal. Historically the calorie was defined in terms of the heating of water. More recently the calorie has been defined in terms of the joule; the equivalence between the calorie and joule is historically known as the mechanical equivalent of heat.
British thermal unit Btu. This is the English system analog of the calorie. Kilowatt-hour kWh. The kilowatt-hour is a standard unit of electricity production and consumption. In discussing the production and use of energy it is often convenient to speak in terms of the bulk amount of fuel, e. These terms are sometimes used not only to denote a volume or mass, but also to represent an amount of energy. While useful in putting a primary focus on the fuel of interest, there is an intrinsic imprecision in such an approach because "oil" and "coal" embrace a variety of products, with different energy contents per unit mass.
The differences can be large. The heat content for several common fuels, as well as the weighted averages for petroleum, coal and natural gas consumed in the U. Special topics relating to electricity Gross and net electricity production. The gross electricity generation for example, in kWh is the amount of energy measured at the terminals of the generating unit. The net generation is measured at the output transformer of the power plant.
Table IV. Units and conversion factors see text. Based on IT Btu. As used in Ref. Set equal to efficiency for fossil fuels. Ignoring n-capture in U and U. DOE, Follow Us. Assumed efficiency in electricity generation for calculating "primary energy".
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The Need To Produce a Minimum Publishable Unit in Journal Publishing
Access to energy is a key pillar for human wellbeing, economic development and poverty alleviation. Ensuring everyone has sufficient access is an ongoing and pressing challenge for global development. However, our energy systems also have important environmental impacts. Historical and current energy systems are dominated by fossil fuels coal, oil and gas which produce carbon dioxide CO 2 and other greenhouse gases — the fundamental driver of global climate change. If we are to meet our global climate targets and avoid dangerous climate change, the world needs a significant and concerted transition in its energy sources. Balancing the challenge between development and environment therefore provides us with an ultimate goal of ensuring everyone has access to enough sustainable energy to maintain a high standard of living. It is intended to provide a fundamental background to the macro-trends in our historical and current energy systems, with key learnings on how we can use this understanding to shape pathways towards a sustainable future.
Global EV Outlook 2019
So you're thinking of creating a digital magazine. You probably have lots of questions about where to start, what software to use, how to distribute it, and more. This guide will touch on all of those points and highlight other factors you may not have thought of. After reading this, you'll be prepared to take the next step towards becoming a digital publisher.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Bett 2017 - Digital publications as units
Spanning the full spectrum of translational research from discovery science to experimental medicine and from critical evaluation of new treatments to patient-population-related outcomes, each issue provides up-to-date coverage of novel developments that enhance our understanding of the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of endocrine and metabolic disorders or give insight into the metabolic basis of other human diseases. Over and above new findings submitted from researchers across the globe, regular features of special interest include personal perspectives and commentaries on new developments, results of prismatic clinical trials, mini-reviews, and clinical practice guidelines. More about the journal. Publication Fees and Open Access. Manuscript Preparation Guidelines and Checklist. Ethical Issues and Conduct. Editorial Guidelines and Policies. Data Repositories and Data Registration.
The following sections provide guidelines on how to prepare and compose your manuscript. Please follow these standards to ensure a smooth peer-review and production process. If you or your institute plans a press release or some other promotional work on your paper, please inform Media and Communications at Copernicus media copernicus. We may be able to assist you and help distribute your work further. The package contains the LaTeX2e class file, the configuration file, all needed style files, as well as a template serving as the framework for your manuscript. Authors are kindly requested to make use of the template. Since we convert all typeset TeX files into XML, the expressions and markups have to be highly standardized. Therefore, please keep the following in mind:. If you are familiar with BibTeX, you can use copernicus. It will sort your bibliography entries alphabetically and produce the proper layout of the reference list. Please use the Microsoft equation editor and not the graphic mode when compiling your equations.
Introduction to Ammonia Production
The Need To Produce a Minimum Publishable Unit in Journal Publishing Despite the increasing pressure for academics and scientists to publish articles early and frequently in order to receive promotions, grants and salary increases, the requirement to produce a minimum publishable unit remains standard among scholarly journals. It is therefore imperative when preparing an original research paper for publication to ensure that you are providing the basic ingredients to constitute what the journal will consider a publishable article. Unfortunately, most journals do not specify exactly what a minimum publishable unit is. Many will describe the kinds of papers they publish, however, and such information will certainly cover the same sort of ground. For a research paper, for instance, original research is necessary, and that research should be described in some detail, particularly its methods and procedures. Introductory or background material is standard as well, even if it is very brief. Increase Your Chances of Getting Published Significant results also tend to be a requirement for publication, so the findings of your research should be reported and some analysis demonstrating their value should be offered. For a short paper you may wish to be selective in what you discuss in order to meet length requirements and keep an argument straightforward, but it is a good idea to provide more complete data in tables, appendices or archives to substantiate your research for those specialists who will want to see the larger picture.
Desalination is a separation process used to reduce the dissolved salt content of saline water to a usable level. All desalination processes involve three liquid streams: the saline feedwater brackish water or seawater , low-salinity product water, and very saline concentrate brine or reject water. The saline feedwater is drawn from oceanic or underground sources. It is separated by the desalination process into the two output streams: the low-salinity product water and very saline concentrate streams. The use of desalination overcomes the paradox faced by many coastal communities, that of having access to a practically inexhaustible supply of saline water but having no way to use it. Although some substances dissolved in water, such as calcium carbonate, can be removed by chemical treatment, other common constituents, like sodium chloride, require more technically sophisticated methods, collectively known as desalination. In the past, the difficulty and expense of removing various dissolved salts from water made saline waters an impractical source of potable water. However, starting in the s, desalination began to appear to be economically practical for ordinary use, under certain circumstances. A by-product of desalination is brine.
Manuscript preparation guidelines for authors
The Global EV Outlook is an annual publication that identifies and discusses recent developments in electric mobility across the globe. Combining historical analysis with projections to , the report examines key areas of interest such as electric vehicle and charging infrastructure deployment, ownership cost, energy use, carbon dioxide emissions and battery material demand. The report includes policy recommendations that incorporate learning from frontrunner markets to inform policy makers and stakeholders that consider policy frameworks and market systems for electric vehicle adoption. This edition features a specific analysis of the performance of electric cars and competing powertrain options in terms of greenhouse gas emissions over their life cycle.
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Primary industry data gathered through FEVE show European glass container production continued to grow in confirming positive trends of the previous years, although at slower pace which is line with prevailing sluggish macroeconomic trends. Glass is more than ever the leading packaging material for spirits, wines and beer, while it is increasingly gaining share in the food, water and dairy sectors. It the second leading packaging material in Europe in terms of volume. Read more.
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Publishing is the business of making information available to the public, particularly the sale or dissemination of literature , music , or information using both digital and non-digital media. In some cases, authors may be their own publishers, meaning originators and developers of content also provide media to deliver and display their content. Traditionally, the term refers to the distribution of printed works, such as books the "book trade" , newspapers , and magazines. With the advent of digital information systems and the Internet , the scope of publishing has expanded to include electronic resources such as the electronic versions of books and periodicals, as well as micropublishing , websites , blogs , video game publishers , and the like.