This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. D Chief of Forestry Division, U. In preparing this work, the author has endeavored to present, in a concise form, a general outline of the subject of Forestry in its most ample relations, without attempting to be exhaustive in any thing. Technical details have been avoided as far as was thought possible; but in mentioning the names of trees and other organic objects, the scientific as well as the common names have generally both been used, chiefly because the latter are often quite uncertain in their application, while the former can never be mistaken when rightly applied, and are alike in the scientific literature of all languages. In noticing the various subjects embraced, care has been taken to mention the economical uses and commercial values that pertain to jhem, and in describing different methods, a preference has been stated whenever it was thought to lead to best results.
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This banner text can have markup. Search the history of over billion web pages on the Internet. D Chief of Forestry Division, U. In preparing this work, the author has endeavored to present, in a concise form, a general outline of the subject of Forestry in its most ample relations, without attempting to be exhaustive in any thing.
Technical details have been avoided as far as was thought possible; but in mentioning the names of trees and other organic objects, the scientific as well as the common names have generally both been used, chiefly because the latter are often quite uncertain in their application, while the former can never be mistaken when rightly applied, and are alike in the scientific literature of all languages.
In noticing the various subjects embraced, care has been taken to mention the economical uses and commercial values that pertain to jhem, and in describing different methods, a preference has been stated whenever it was thought to lead to best results. The engravings in this work are chiefly derived from the following sources : Those occupying full pages, and showing details of structure of some of the principal species of Timber-trees, and the laws of development and growth, are from " Der Wald," by E.
Rossmassler, an approved German author. The engravings showing de- tails of wood structure, are chiefly from " Les Bois," by M. Dupont and Bouquet de la Grye, and some of the illustrations of botanical species are from the " Guide du Forestier," by the latter. Those of Charcoal Kilns, are from the " Journal of the U. Dewberry's Report, embraced in Vol. VI, of the "Pacific Railroad Surveys.
Wherever the language of an author has been quoted, the citations given will generally lead to more extended information, and in the absence of references, it is believed that the facts and principles here presented will generally be found such as are supported by approved experience and well established observation. Although many special works upon planting, arbori- culture, botanical descriptions, and other subjects relating to particular departments of Forestry have been issued, at various times, this is, so far as we know, the first attempt to present, in our language, and in one volume, the sub- ject of Forestry in the comprehensive sense that we have defined it.
It would have been much easier to do this in a larger volume, and it was often found a difficult task to condense into the space that could be allowed to the several divisions of the subject, all that it was desirable to present concerning it. We have endeavored to adapt this work to the want of students in Forestry, whether in the class- rooms of an institution, or engaged in practical labors; and it has been our special aim to present information that is applicable to our own country, and to those regions where tree-planting is most needed, and often most diffi- cult.
If it is found to meet this intention, our object will be attained. Sale of Timber-lands.. Mechanical Processes of Volter, Hartmann, Siebricht, etc. Supplies from the Oak Hemlocks, etc.
Forestry, in its most comprehensive sense, is that branch of knowledge that treats of woodlands their formation, mainte- nance, and renewal, the influences that may affect their welfare ; the methods employed in their management, the removal, prepara- tion, and use of their products, and the economies that may be gained by skillful operation.
Sylviculture 1 is that part of Forestry which relates to the plant- ing and cultivation of groves and collective bodies of forest trees. Arboriculture' 2 treats of the cultivation of trees. It is some- times limited to the cultivation of fruit-trees, but the term may properly be extended to include the planting and care of trees gen- erally, whether for fruit, ornament, or other use.
Forestry involves the application of many branches of science : a. From natural history it derives the description and classifica- tion of trees, and of the animal and vegetable life that affect their welfare. From geology and mineralogy, it learns the origin and com- position of soils and sub-soils, and of the rock formations from which they are derived, their constituent parts, their permeability, and their fitness for the successful growth of particular kinds of trees.
By the aid of chemistry it determines the elements of the soil, the composition and changes that take place in the growth and decay of wood, the methods that may be used for increasing its du- rability or improving its quality, and the various operations con- cerned in the production and use of its chemical products.
From mathematics it derives aid in all processes of measure- 1 From syha. From mechanics, it applies the various agencies employed in cutting, transporting, and manufacture of wood and timber in every form. From physics and meteorology, it determines the various questions of atmospheric influence and of climate that may arise, whether as cause or effect, and seeks to learn how these may be im- proved to best advantage, and, in some cases, controlled. From political economy, it applies the principles that deter- mine questions of supply and demand, of public policy, and of financial profits, the interests that arc involved, and their mutual dependence, the laws of trade, as they concern forest products or properties, and whatever principles may relate to their creation, production, or management.
An intelligent system of Forestry aims to impart knowledge as to the conditions best adapted to cultivation, the best methods of securing a growth of trees by seeding or planting, the use of meas- ures that shall secure their thrifty growths, protection from injuries, natural renewal at period of full maturity or time for use, and a constant tendency toward improvement of the products.
A Tree, is a plant having a woody root, trunk, and branches. We generally apply the term shrub to trees that are less than fifteen feet in height at maturity, and the term buth to those that grow to six feet in height or less.
These terms are however arbitrary, in their use, and can not be with certainty applied to any species. Trees may increase from within, as in the case of palms, or by the deposit of wood in annual layers under the bark. The former have no bark proper, and are called Endogenous, a term signifying "growing from within. The latter are termed Ex- ogenous, a term signifying "growing from without, "and increase by the deposit of new layers of wood on the outside, under the bark.
This great division includes, with the above exception, all of the ua-- tive and naturalized trees of the United States. A Species, when used in Forestry, is understood to mean a group of trees or other plants, resembling in the details of their structure, Definitions.
They are subject to many variations, due to differences of soil, climate, and other causes, and occasionally produce unusual forms in their leaves, size and color of flowers, quality of fruit, or habits of growth, which are called " sports.
This is occasionally seen in the oaks and the willows, but as a rule the species remain distinct. These devi- ations from the normal type may be perpetuated by budding, graft- ing, or layers, but when they bear fertile seeds, they do not produce plants having like peculiarities, and tend to return to their original forms.
A Genus, rs usually a group of species having common resem- blances in the structure of the flowers and fruit, and generally, in their leaves and in the habit of growth, such as the pines, maples, birches, etc.
In some cases, however, a genus may include but one species. They are sometimes divided into groups or sub-genera, having some common resemblance, and occasionally these may be further arranged into other groups, having common forms or prop- erties.
Where there are several species in a genus, they may be generally grafted upon one another, but in other cases this can only be done successfully within the group or sub-genus to which the species belong. These are again sometimes divided into sub-orders, families, or groups, depending upon a common resemblance, and instances occur in which a natural order includes but a single genus. We have examples of natural orders in the Coniferce, embrac- ing the pines, firs, spruces, cedars, junipers, etc.
The description and classification of orders, genera, and species among trees form a part of the province of botany, and will not be attempted in this work.
In mentioning the common names 4 Of Soils, etc. The common names are very uncertain, and may in one re- gion be applied to species very unlike those where they are used in another. But the scientific names, rightly applied, are exactly un- derstood in every language in which the sciences are taught, and can not be mistaken for any others. They are very generally de- rived from Greek or Latin words, expressing some quality or char- acter in the genus or species to which they are applied.
The generic name is more commonly derived from the Greek, and the specific name from the Latin. The former always begins with a capital let- ter the latter only when it is derived from a proper noun. Where a number of species are mentioned in succession, the initial letter only of the genus will be used after the first one, as Pinm strobus, P. The soil or loose material that generally covers the surface of the earth to a greater or less depth, partakes in a large degree of the chemical character of the rock formations from which it has been derived.
These may be the subjacent rocks, or the material may have been transported by former geological agencies, as in "drift," or deposited by those now in action, as in alluvial mud, or littoral sands.
Besides these mineral components, the soil generally contains more or less organic material, derived from vegetation, or, to slight extent, from animal life. In the native forests, this ' ' vegetable soil " has been mostly created by the trees and herbage, from materials taken up in solution by the roots from the soil, and absorbed by the leaves from the air, and has gradually accumulated from the decay of the leaves, or of the trees and plants themselves.
This organic material is called humus, and its quality and amount depends upon the kind and quantity that has been allowed to decompose. It is sometimes known as " vegetable mold," and has no definite chemical composition, but contains Humic acid C 20 H 12 O 6 , and various other organic compounds.
When vege- tation decays in moist places, as in swamps, it forms muck, and Peat. Functions of the Roots. These vary considerably in composition, and the latter contains so large an amount of carbon that it is used profitably as a fuel. The former, when mixed with animal manures, and the latter, when its acidity has been neutralized by lime or al- kalies, become valuable as fertilizers. Both humus and peat ab- sorb water with avidity, and retain it with tenacity.
It is partly on this account that vegetable mold, when mixed with other soils, tends to impart fertility by retaining moisture within the reach of vegetation. The term Loam is attached to a class of soils composed of different earthy materials of dissimilar particles, not easily ductile, readily diffused when thrown into water, and easily penetrated by the roots of trees and other plants. A mixture of humus renders it porous and fertile, and in a forest, this fertility tends constantly to increase, and hence the growth of trees is one of the best means for restoring exhausted soils.
The soil has an influence upon the growth of trees in two ways : it gives them support, and it furnishes them with nourishment. In order to give support, the soil should be permeable by the roots, without being too tenacious to resist their extension, nor too light to hold them.
In nursery plantations, the proper qualities may be se- cured by artificial mixture of materials, but except in a very small degree, we can not modify them, and must seek to improve by the choice of species, the conditions as we find them.
As the roots of trees penetrate much deeper into the soil than those of agricultural plants, the welfare of woodlands often depends much upon the depth and character of the sub-soil, as is observed in the "Landes" of south-western France, where a vigorous and profitable growth of trees is obtained upon lands that are almost utterly barren for cultivation in farm crops. In other cases, as in flat limestone districts, the surface soil may be too thin for cultiva- tion, while in the fissures there is sufficient soil for supplying the roots of trees.
These roots, when they decay, besides leaving the organic material of which they were composed, also leave open passages penetrating deeply into the soil, and affording opportunities for drainage. These may become filled in with mold from the surface, and thus they in some degree assist in rendering the soil fertile to a greater depth than would be possible from the simple deposit of or- ganic materials upon the surface.
The state of division of the soil, as to whether coarse or fine, has also au important influence, especially with reference to its per- meability by water, its drainage, and the like. Upon these proper- ties, and the organic materials, in connection with the local climate, the fertility of a given soil may be said to depend. It matters not what the chemical or physical properties of the soil may be, it will remain unproductive unless there be seasonable and sufficient rains, or their equivalent supplied by irrigation, and unless the conditions of temperature be consistent with vegetable growth.
Although soils present infinite variety in their constituent parts, they may be classed under four principal divisions, viz. In siliceous soils, the principal constituent is gravel or sand, composed of silex or quartz, more or less finely divided, and nearly or quite destitute of the power of absorbing of retaining water, un- less underlaid by a retentive sub-soil, or unless it is but moderately above the level of a standing water, from which, by capillary attrac- tion, its moisture may be drawn.
In calcareous soils, the carbonate of lime is found, either from the decomposition of limestones, or from marls of more recent or- ganic origin. Such soils have the property of absorbing and retain- ing moisture in a high degree, but, although saturated they do not become impenetrable to the air, and when turned up and exposed to its action they fall to dust, and this the more readily when as- sisted by frost.
They will effervesce when thrown into acids, and this affords a convenient, but not absolute test. In argillaceous soils, the silicate of alumina, in the form of clay, forms the principal ingredient. These soils have a strong affinity for water, and hold it with great tenacity ; yet, when exposed to solar heat, they crack into deep fissures in times of drouth.
The water that falls upon clay soils does not penetrate, and they often af- ford much resistance to the roots of plants. In alkaline soils, the soluble salts of soda are in excess.
Where these soils occur, there is a noted deficiency in the rain fall, and a marked sterility from this cause, for the excess of alkali appears principally due to the want of moisture for dissolving it out and car- rying it away. When such soils are irrigated, they become fertile, and improve as the excess of alkali is reduced. A lime-like deposit Characteristics of Soils. Although none of these soils can alone be called fertile, their proper mixture, and especially of the first three, with humus, af- fords conditions highly favorable to success.
Besides the qualities resulting from their chemical composi- tion, and their relations to moisture, soils differ greatly in their ca- pacity for absorbing, retaining, and radiating heat. A soil covered with siliceous pebbles retains the heat better than fine sand, and hence it is one of the circumstances that favor the growth of the vine. In the wine districts of France, differences in the time of maturing the fruit have been traced directly to this cause.
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Artefacts and environmental remains are abundant from archaeological excavations across Europe, but until now they have most commonly been used to accompany broader narratives built on historical sources and studies of topography and buildings, rather than being studied as important evidence in their own right. The papers in this volume aim to redress the balance by taking an environmental and artefact-based approach to life in medieval Europe. The contributions included here address central themes such as urban identities, the nature of towns and their relationship with their hinterlands, provisioning processes, and the role of ritual and religion in everyday life. Case studies from across Europe encourage a comparative approach between town and country, and provide a pan-European perspective to current debates.
Христа ради, Мидж. Ну хватит. Телефон заливался еще секунд пятнадцать и наконец замолк. Джабба облегченно вздохнул.
Ein Ring! - повторил Беккер, но дверь закрылась перед его носом.
Я ее убиваю. Стратмор мгновенно взвесил все варианты. Если он позволит Хейлу вывести Сьюзан из шифровалки и уехать, у него не будет никаких гарантий. Они уедут, потом остановятся где-нибудь в лесу. У него будет пистолет… От этой мысли у Стратмора свело желудок. Кто знает, что произойдет, прежде чем он решит освободить Сьюзан… если он ее вообще освободит. Я обязан позвонить в службу безопасности, - решил .
Танкадо передает ключ победителю аукциона, и получившая его компания вскрывает Цифровую крепость. Затем она, наверное, вмонтирует алгоритм в защищенный чип, и через пять лет все компьютеры будут выпускаться с предустановленным чипом Цифровой крепости.
Никакой коммерческий производитель и мечтать не мог о создании шифровального чипа, потому что нормальные алгоритмы такого рода со временем устаревают. Но Цифровая крепость никогда не устареет: благодаря функции меняющегося открытого текста она выдержит людскую атаку и не выдаст ключа.
Чего же он ждет. Он засмеялся.
Знал он и то, что, когда пыль осядет, он либо станет героем АНБ, либо пополнит ряды тех, кто ищет работу. В огромной дешифровальной машине завелся вирус - в этом он был абсолютно уверен. Существовал только один разумный путь - выключить. Чатрукьян знал и то, что выключить ТРАНСТЕКСТ можно двумя способами.
Первый - с личного терминала коммандера, запертого в его кабинете, и он, конечно, исключался. Второй - с помощью ручного выключателя, расположенного в одном из ярусов под помещением шифровалки. Чатрукьян тяжело сглотнул. Он терпеть не мог эти ярусы. Он был там только один раз, когда проходил подготовку.
И вот Халохот уже за спиной жертвы. Как танцор, повторяющий отточенные движения, он взял чуть вправо, положил руку на плечо человеку в пиджаке цвета хаки, прицелился и… выстрелил. Раздались два приглушенных хлопка. Беккер вначале как бы застыл, потом начал медленно оседать. Быстрым движением Халохот подтащил его к скамье, стараясь успеть, прежде чем на спине проступят кровавые пятна.
Шедшие мимо люди оборачивались, но Халохот не обращал на них внимания: еще секунда, и он исчезнет.
Коммандер, - вмешалась Сьюзан, - я хотела бы поговорить… Стратмор жестом заставил ее замолчать. Глаза его неотрывно смотрели на Чатрукьяна. - В него попал зараженный файл, сэр. Я абсолютно в этом уверен. Лицо Стратмора побагровело.
Халохот быстро убедился, что сад пуст, и поднял глаза вверх, на Гиральду. Вход на спиральную лестницу Гиральды преграждала веревка с висящей на ней маленькой деревянной табличкой.
- Все становится на свои места. Какой-то миг еще ощущались сомнения, казалось, что в любую секунду все снова начнет разваливаться на части. Но затем стала подниматься вторая стена, за ней третья. Еще несколько мгновений, и весь набор фильтров был восстановлен.
Turista, - усмехнулся. И прошептал чуть насмешливо: - Llamo un medico.
Но нутром он чувствовал, что это далеко не. Интуиция подсказывала ему, что в глубинах дешифровального чудовища происходит что-то необычное.