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The Location of Emergency Service FacilitiesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: HUGE INDUSTRIAL FIRE IN CARDIFF! - Many Specialist Fire Engines & Trucks Responding - [PART 1]
Singapore is an island of about square kilometreans in area. The average population density in Singapore is about 4, people per square kilometre. Such high population densities make it imperative for hazardous substances to be controlled so that public exposure to accidental release is, if not avoided, minimised. In addition, large parts of Singapore are used as water catchment areas. It is necessary to ensure that chemical storage facilities and transport avoid such areas as far as possible.
This is to prevent pollution and to protect drinking water sources against contamination. The awareness of the hazards or risks posed to both human health and the environment from the manufacturing, storage, transport, and use of hazardous chemicals has come about in recent years as a result of a number of reported major industrial accidents in both developed and the developing countries.
Two well known catastrophic incidents occurred in the mid s in the less developed countries. These were the release of toxic methyl isocyanate from a pesticide factory in Bhopal, India and the explosions and fires at an LPG installation in Mexico. Both incidents caused great losses of lives. In Singapore, the Government has implemented measures to control and minimise the risks from industrial developments handling large quantities of hazardous substances not only to protect workers within the hazardous plants but also the general public and the environment.
The hazardous chemicals controlled by PCD see Table 1 are those that:. In Singapore, the control of hazardous chemicals are implemented mainly through the following measures:. Hazardous Substances. Management of Hazardous Substances Introduction Singapore is an island of about square kilometreans in area. Pollution Control Department Control Strategies The hazardous chemicals controlled by PCD see Table 1 are those that: Pose a mass-disaster potential Are highly toxic and polluting Generates waste which cannot be safely and adequately disposed of In Singapore, the control of hazardous chemicals are implemented mainly through the following measures: Planning control Licensing control Enforcement.
Planning Control On new developments, PCD checks and ensures that new residential and industrial developments are properly sited and are compatible with surrounding land use. PCD also imposes environmental pollution control requirements to be incorporated into designs of developments to minimise pollution and to mitigate pollution impact on surrounding developments.
PCD assesses and evaluates the environmental impact of the proposed industries to ensure that they do not pose unmanageable health and safety hazards and pollution problems. A proposed industry will be allowed only if emissions of pollutants can comply with standards, wastes can be safely managed and properly disposed of, and the factory can be sited in a suitable industrial estate. For major developments, PCD requires developers to carry out pollution control assessment for their proposals.
Examples of major developments include industries involving the use or storage of hazardous chemicals in bulk quantities, port development, landfill site, etc.
The study includes an assessment of all pollution impact on the environment and recommendation of measures to mitigate such impact. PCD will issue clearance to the proposed development only if its evaluation of the study reports confirms that pollution impact could be mitigated to acceptable levels.
In addition, PCD encourages industries to reuse, recycle and recover their by-products to minimise waste generation. Disposal of wastes by landfill is only used as a last resort.
For proposed industrial developments, PCD also checks and ensures that clean technology is adopted in industrial processes to conserve resources, and minimise pollution. After a proposed development has been granted planning approval, a developer can proceed to submit building plans to the Building Control Division BCD of the Public Works Department for approval. Under the current procedure on building plan approval, the developer is also required to submit building plans to technical departments including PCD for clearance on technical requirements.
PCD checks the building plans of the development for compliance with technical requirements on environmental health, drainage, sewerage and pollution control. In addition, PCD also checks and ensures that pollution control measures are incorporated into the design of buildings. Industries are required to apply for written permission, licence and permits from PCD before they can start operations. The licensing controls prevent unauthorised persons from handling such substances and ensure proper safeguards are taken at all times in the handling of the substances to prevent and mitigate accidental releases if they occur.
A Permit will be issued to a person if: he can show proof that the Hazardous Substances will be stored safely in an approved location and in compliance with all storage requirements; the use of the Hazardous Substances at his factory has been approved; and he has declared that he has read and understood the Environmental Protection and Management Act EPMA and its Regulations. The limits varies from 0 kg for highly toxic chemicals such as organochlorines pesticides to kg for corrosives such as sulphuric acid.
A Transport Approval will be issued to a person if: he holds a Licence to handle hazardous substances; and he can show proof that the Hazardous Substances will be transported safely in compliance with all transportation requirements. The licence holder can also submit an online application for a Hazardous Substances Transport Approval. Import Control The most effective stage of control to ensure that all chemicals that enter Singapore can be and will be safely managed and handled at all times by approved competent licence holders is at the import stage.
PCD will approve the import only if: the Hazardous Substances are stated in the importer's licence, there is a valid transport approval for the Hazardous Substances if the Hazardous Substances are to be transported out of the port.
Technical Requirements Under Licensing Controls The Environmental Protection and Management Act EPMA and its Regulations provide provisions for technical requirements to be imposed and complied with to ensure the safe management and handling of hazardous substances and to prevent an accident from occurring.
These technical requirements are briefly described below. The containers and storage tanks for the chemicals must be designed, manufactured and tested in accordance to an internationally-acceptable standards.
Hazardous Substances Licence and Permit holders must keep records of stock movements of the hazardous substances in accordance to the formats specified by PCD. Adequate emergency action plan see Annex 1 for dealing with any accidental release of chemicals must be drawn; with adequate stock of emergency equipment such as neutralising agent, adsorbents, oversized drums, protective gears, etc on kept on standby.
The implementation of a safety audit procedure is strongly encouraged to systematically identify and rectify weaknesses in the management system and practices of handling hazardous chemicals on a regular basis. Attached are the elements that should be audited and a list of consultants that are able to conduct such audits. Transport Requirements The containers and tankers used for bulk chemical transportation must be designed, manufactured and tested in accordance to an internationally-acceptable standards.
The tankers must be certified by an approved third party inspection body to have met the stipulated standards see Annex 4 before it can be used for transportation on Singapore roads.
The containers, tankers and vehicles must be properly labelled and carry appropriate hazard warning panels. An adequate transportation emergency response plan TERP see Annex 5 must also be put up to deal with any accidental release of the hazardous substances; with adequate stock of emergency equipment carried on the vehicles; such as chemical fire extinguisher, neutralising agent, adsorbents, oversized drums, protective gears, etc.
The consignor has to prepare a set of instructions for the carrier or transport company containing the following: information on the hazards of hazardous substance and safety precautions for its safe handling, restrictions on the mode of transport and any necessary routing instructions, special operational requirements for loading, unloading and transport or a statement that none is needed, emergency response plan for transportation of the hazardous substances.
The carrier is required to obtain a set of the above instructions from the consignor and be conversant with the information it contained before proceeding to transport the consignment of the hazardous substance.
The carrier must instruct and train his driver to ensure he understood the instructions given and is capable of carrying them out effectively. All documents pertaining to the chemicals transported i.
MSDS, transport approval and all emergency response, spill control and first aid equipment should be kept within ready reach in event of emergency. The consignor has to ensure that the instructions given to the carrier are accurate and sufficient to enable the carrier to carry out the transportation safely.
The consignor is also required to be present on-site to personally deal with any chemical release during transportation. Tanks of road tankers and tank containers used for transporting hazardous substances must meet approved standards of design, construction and testing. The design of the tanks must be reviewed and its construction surveyed by an approved third party inspection body.
Once the third party inspection body is satisfied that the tank or tank container meets the approved standards, it will issue an initial inspection certificate. Under the approved standards, the tank and tank container must undergo periodic inspections. Road tankers and vehicles carrying hazardous substances in tank containers should have Emergency Information Panels.
These are hazard warning panels containing the following emergency information: the appropriate class label and subsidiary risk label, if any the accurate technical name of the substance the UN number of the substance the Hazchem code number contact numbers and names of company and emergency response authorities Emergency Response Plan Notwithstanding the controls and precautions taken, one cannot rule out the possibility of spillages and accidental releases of hazardous substances during transportation.
With well drawn up emergency plans and proper training, such releases can be effectively contained and the damage to the environment and dangers to the health and safety of public minimised.
As a condition for granting licences and transport approvals, companies are required to put up emergency response plans. Enforcement Under the Act and its Rules, PCD officers are empowered to carry out regular inspection to check into the following aspects of controls: Import, purchase and sale of Hazardous Substances Storage Transportation Labelling Maintenance of records and sales documents Check that all hazardous substances are safely disposed of PCD officers are authorised to: check and search premises; extracts records and documents for investigations; and conduct surprise checks on road tankers used for transportation.
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NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories. The most common equipment-related hazards in laboratories come from devices powered by electricity devices for work with compressed gases, and devices for high or low pressures and temperatures.
O. Reg. 213/07: FIRE CODE
This paper views the location of emergency facilities as a set covering problem with equal costs in the objective. The sets are composed of the potential facility points within a specified time or distance of each demand point. Available Issues November - November-December View PDF. Go to Section. Home Operations Research Vol. Constantine Toregas.
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Return to index New query. Go Back to Article Table of Contents. Skip to Main Content. This information is provided free of charge by the Department of Industrial Relations from its web site at www. These regulations are for the convenience of the user and no representation or warranty is made that the information is current or accurate. Title 8. Industrial Relations Division 1. Department of Industrial Relations Chapter 4. Division of Industrial Safety Subchapter 7. General Industry Safety Orders Group
O. Reg. 213/07: FIRE CODE
In general, warehouses are focal points for product and information flow between sources of supply and beneficiaries. However, in humanitarian supply chains, warehouses vary greatly in terms of their role and their characteristics. The global warehousing concept has gained popularity over the last decade as stock pre-positioning becomes one of the strategies for ensuring a timely response to emergencies.
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This booklet provides a generic overview of a standards-related topic. This publication does not alter or determine compliance responsibilities, which are described in the OSHA standards and the Occupational Safety and Health Act. Because interpretations and enforcement policy may change over time, the best sources for additional guidance on OSHA compliance requirements are current administrative interpretations and decisions by the Occupational Safety and Health Review Commission and the courts. This publication is in the public domain and may be reproduced fully or partially without permission. Source credit is requested but not required. OSHA will make this information available to sensory impaired individuals upon request. Call Introduction What is a workplace emergency? How do you protect yourself, your employees, and your business? What is an emergency action plan?
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Table of Contents
Emergency and security services exist to deal with extraordinary and threatening situations. The people who work in such services are therefore confronted with events and circumstances that lie outside the usual experience of human beings in their daily lives. Although each of the occupations has its own set of hazards, risks and traditions, they share several features in common. These include the following:.
Management of Hazardous Substances
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Fire Rescue Equipment List
Singapore is an island of about square kilometreans in area. The average population density in Singapore is about 4, people per square kilometre. Such high population densities make it imperative for hazardous substances to be controlled so that public exposure to accidental release is, if not avoided, minimised. In addition, large parts of Singapore are used as water catchment areas.
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First Aid and Emergency Medical Services. First Aid Antonio J.